Cash for Comments Economists Network
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The Cash for Comments network of 170 (in total over ten years) American Professors of Economics (with a few law and business professors), was one of the most successful, and long-lasting of all the scams run by the tobacco industry. It was the brain-child of Professor Robert D. Tollison at George Mason University's libertarian think-tank, the Center for the Study of Public Choice (CSPC), and James M Savarese of Ogilvy & Mather Public Relations.
Savarese later took the lobbying operation out of O&M and ran it through his own private lobbying company James Savarese & Associates with a skeleton staff -- aand in partnership with Tollison and his wife Anna Tollison. Later Savarese turned up, once again, as a key lobbyist with Ogilvy Adams & Rinehart, so clearly this had always been a surreptitious O&M operation - kept at arms length, and legally separated from that large company, probably for legal reasons.
Essentially, Tollison recruited to this network at least one Professor of Economics in each State University (they were poorly paid and welcomed the chance to make money on the side). He used his list of members and friends within the Center for Study of Public Choice and the Public Choice Society which he jointly controlled with Gordon Tullock and James Buchanan at George Mason University.
'Public Choice' in the context of the day, was a catch-phrase meaning "free-markets, less government, reduced regulation" of goods and services. It was the ultra-libertarian economic ideology of UK Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher which was followed (as much as he was capable of understanding it) by President Ronald Reagan in the USA.
The tobacco industry paid no retainers to the general network members -- but they did to the core network and those half-dozen recruited as part of the Committee on Taxation & Economic Growth. Most were employed purely on pay-for-service transactions. Savarese and Tollison would put out a request to each network member, specifying the subject to be covered and including a few of the key themes to be promoted, and any essential statistics. The professor was then expected to:
|Com. on Tax & Economic Growth|
|Robert Tollison & James Savarese|
|C4C Network Documents|
- write an op-ed piece following the theme and guidelines provided (usually 1000-1500 words), but in layman's language.
- send the article to the editor of a local city newspaper (specified by the minders). It was probably assumed that some would be paid a token freelance writer's fee by the newspaper. ($100-$250 at this time)
- if the article was published (and many were since they were essentially free) then photocopies of the article were to be sent to two local Representatives or Congressmen (specified by the minders)
- the Tobacco Institute would encourage the economist to send the same article to other small newspapers.
- the professors would then be paid between $600 and $3000 for their efforts (+ bonus for successes) The amount varied over time.
The articles were commissioned by the Tobacco Institute, via Savarese's staff. When the article was written it was returned to the Institute, who would then make any necessary changes, and pass it through one or more of their major outside law firms for vetting. Sometimes Savarese or his staff might make changes also. Newspapers were designated in each region, so two or more articles didn't conflict. If the article was published, they were to send copies to a designated Congressman or Senator, with a note bringing their 'independent opinion' to his/her notice.
They were also paid to write letters-to-the-editor whenever the opportunity arose to promote the cigarette industry's line. .For a period in 1987-88 the network was extended to also include Professors of Law and Business.
C4C Network Phases
The Cash for Comments Economists' Network developed in five clearly identifiable phases.
- Phase 1. (c 1979) Professors Robert D Tollison and Richard Wagner were recruited by George R Berman (Philip Morris and Devon Management Resources) to provide propaganda writing services to the International Committee on Smoking Issues (ICOSI) which met in Brussels under the direction of Mary Covington.
- Phase 2. (c late 1983) Tollison and Wagner were transferred to the control of Ogilvy & Mather PR (James Savarese) in the USA under the control of the Tobacco Institute. They were joined by economics professors Harold M Hochman, Fred McChesney, Thomas Borcherding and Dolores Martin to form the Committee on Tax & Economic Growth. The CTEG offered advice on the desirability of low excise taxes on cigarettes to the media and politicians as esteemed members of an 'independent' society or experts.
- Phase 3. (May 1984) Tollison and Savarese now established the cash-for-comments network for the Tobacco Institute using the Center for Study of Public Choice at George Mason University as a money laundry channel. They recruited 42 professors (they claimed) from the Public Choice Society (some didn't last long) before the end of 1985. Their task was mainly to write op-eds on specified subjects for their local newspapers, and they were paid a bonus for contacting their local Assemblymen and Congressmen. They were also to be available to the tobacco industry's State lobbyists as 'independent' witnesses at ordinance and Congressional hearings on workplace smoking, etc. (The promised 'secrecy' was not well preserved within the Tobacco Institute).
- Phase 4. (c 1986) Savarese and Tollison now formed a formal partnership Savarese & Associates and expanded the network to include at least one professor of economics in each State (some States had two). Payment was increased; there was a regular turnover, but the numbers stabilised. Eventually the Tobacco Institute became annoyed with the mark-up that the partnership added to its bills, and sent in the auditors. They didn't like what they found.
- Phase 5. (c. 1996) The Savarese/Tollison partnership continued with a few of Tollison's close associates, but the bulk of the network broke away and began to operate directly to the Tobacco Institute under the leadership of Robert Higgs and William Shughart through the Independent Institute think-tank.
The principle organisers included the:
- Tobacco Institute staff — Peter G Sparber, Susan Stuntz, Debra Schoonmaker, Carol Hyrcaj, Fred Panzer, Jeff Ross and Cal George and William P Orzechowski.
- Economist organizers — Robert D Tollison, William F Shughart, Dwight R Lee, Richard E Wagner, Gary M Anderson, Robert B Ekelund, Henry N Butler
- Organizers from the Center for Study of Public Choice — Anna Tollison (wife of Robert), Elizabeth Masaitis, Carol Roberts
- Organizers from Savarese & Associates. — Jim Savarese, Leslie Dawson, Kelleigh Varnum
- Organisers from Ogilvy & Mather PR— Ken Arnold, Richard Marcus, Marcia Silverman, Patricia Milita ('Trish') -- (Originally James Savarese)
- Organisers from Ogilvy Adams & Rinehart -- James Savarese, Marcia Silverman, Tom Donahue, Eric Shulman, James Carey, Brad Burns, Jennifer Foster Gail Dratch and Lisa Merman.
At a later date the operations and administration was hidden behind the veil of the Independent Institute.
The most popular line of economic argument favoured by the tobacco industry was that of maintaining that cigarette excises (which the States controlled and used to bolster their funds when needed) were 'Regressive' taxes. The appeal was made on human-rights grounds; that the State was kicking the poor and attacking the more defenseless members of society who enjoyed a smoke. Next in line would be a return of alcohol Prohibition or excessive excise taxes on beer and fast food.
|Cigarette taxes . . .Regressive or Progressive?|
|Taxes are considered 'regressive' when they consume more of a low-paid worker's income than that of a person on a higher salary. Therefore all excises and all goods or services taxes are 'regressive' if they are imposed on essentials ... because they must be purchased by the poor as well as the rich.
These economists mislead politicians and the public by labelling cigarette taxes "Regressive" without revealing the hidden assumption that cigarette costs do not influence buying behaviour. However we know that as the price of cigarettes rose the amount smoked by the poor decreased quite rapidly. The poor then spent less on tobacco; had fewer days of absenteeism; had fewer long-term health problems and fewer medical bills. So this excise tax was probably highly "Progressive" in both health and financial terms.The only problem was, the so-called national "Death Benefit" of smoking: both the smoker and their families survived longer. But the longevity of ex-smokers and their offspring made them more of a burden on society in their old age.
The Committee on Taxation & Economic Growth had only just begun operating when it was decided to greatly expand the idea and have one Professor of Economics in each state. The initial organisation was done by James Savarese working as a lobbyist for Ogilvy & Mather PR, which had a major Tobacco Institute account.
1984 Nov 20 Ogilvy & Mather PR (O&M) is organising for the Tobacco Institute the first economists forum at the Public Choice Society meeting in New Orleans, Feb 21-23. (Note: at this time James Savarese worked for O&M's PR division)
The topic would be "Public Choices About Tax Reform." William F. Shughart II, an economist from Clemson University, would chair the panel. Those who would present papers would be:
Bob Tollison would be responsible for getting us on the program. He and Jim Savarese would work with each of the people to ensure that each paper contained a clear anti-excise tax message. Shughart and Anderson would also mention excises in their presentations. We will be obtaining CV s from Anderson and Shughart, who Jim and Bob Tollison know well. The other economists have all worked with us before.
- Thomas Borcherding, from Claremont Graduate School. Subject: "Tax Reform and Simplification: A Public Choice Perspective."
- Harold Hochman, from City University of New York. Subject: "The Value-Added Tax: Do We Need Another Excise Tax?"
- Fred McChesney, Emory University Law School. Subject: "Tax Reform in a Rent-Seeking Perspective: The Role of Interests."
- Gary Anderson, an economist from George Mason University, would be the discussant.
Savarese's estimate of the costs for running this Economists' Forum project with the three papers at $2,000 each and Gary Anderson with $1000, plus travel, hotel, administration, etc. was $16,000. 
- This appears to be the first operation of what was to become the Cash for Comments Economists Network
1984 Apr 30: This 109- page DRAFT Tobacco Institute Cigarette Excise Tax Plan' was being developed to covertly battle against a tax proposal being considered by the Reagan Administration; they were facing a budget crisis. The tobacco industry suspected that the Administration (under pressure to create tax cuts for the wealthy) was about to extend the life of a temporary excise tax which had been imposed on cigarettes (16¢ per pack).
They had an urgent requirement for some 'independent' experts to lobby on their behalf at the State level. Their lobbying budget specified the average cost per State worth lobbying:
- One public finance economist for 10 days @ $1,000, [Total $ 10,000] including meetings with coalition members and/or the Governor's staff; research and preparation; and testimony.
- One economist for a union workshop on the tax issue, [Total $5,000] including 3 or 4 training sessions over the course of a convention.
- Six economists @ $5,000 and one senior economist @ $20,000 for a tax symposium, including publishing of the proceedings at $3,000. [Total $53,000] The senior economist would play an oversight/organizational role and would be responsible for editing the proceedings. Such a symposium would be staged for regional or national impact.
- One economist provided to a public employee union to do original research on the need for adequate services to be funded by broad-based taxes; this would include the final report and testimony. [Total $ 25,000]
Also included in this bundle was draft copy and designs for a couple of different booklets aimed at different States, and others aimed at labor/union and racial groups. It also identifies the Congress Committeemen and state Assemblymen who should be targetted as most likely to be influenced, and it had an appendix which lists economists who can be enlisted to help.
Potential Economic Consultants:
Following is a list of economists in key states who might assist us as consultants. We have begun contacting them to ensure their willingness and expertise. We are asking each about past experience; work with similar issues; previous work with the industry; published articles or research; and speaking availability. As discussed in the body of this program, our intent is to have a group of individuals who we can call upon regularly to testify, conduct special research projects, and discuss their research and/or views on excise taxes with the media.
Tollison is the most influential and prestigious on this list; he was hired to consult on federal tax issues, to publish books promoting the cigarette industry's position, and to oversee efforts of the other cash-for-comments economists throughout the country. See last page
- California, Thomas Borcherding, Claremont College
- Connecticut, William McEachern, University of Washington
- Florida, Richard Wagner, Florida State University
- Georgia, Fred McChesney, Emory University Law School
- Illinois, James Heins, University of Illinois
- Massachusetts, Harlan Platt, Northeastern University
- Minnesota, Thomas Stimson, University of Minnesota (St. Paul Campus)
- New York, Harold Hochman, City University of New York
- Ohio, David Klingaman, Ohio University
- Pennsylvania, Mark Pauly, University of Pennsylvania
- Texas, Charles Maurice, Texas A&M University
- Washington, Yoram Barzel, University of Washington
- Washington, D.C. Robert D Tollison, George Mason University
- Wisconsin, Burton Weisbrod, University of Wisconsin
- They are already designating key states for the economists to influence through op-eds and politicians, and allocating a recruited academic to perform their lobbying services. Yoram Barzel is the only name on the above list who appears to have had second thoughts. He resisted the Institute's overtures entirely -- although they quoted his papers extensively.
1984 Jul The following month the Tobacco Institute circulated a formal document to the cigarette company members:
Cigarette Excise Tax Plan.
The plan augments our basic lobbying efforts by relying on groups outside the industry -- some not regularly associated with the industry -- to argue against excise taxes for us.
It is an ambitious program, based on the notion that many of the most effective protests against tobacco taxes will come from groups philosophically distant from The Institute. Many such groups agree with us on the excise issue, even though they disagree with us on other matters.
At the federal level, supporting Congressional members from the tobacco states is essential to our lobbyists. The tobacco members consistently vote as a unified group -- something that is rarely seen in Congress today. They are our lobbyists' most important resource.
The program recommends that economic and other consultants assist us in developing, "packaging," and presenting our anti-excise arguments in legislative testimony or meetings with coalition members. Resources:Tactics:
Economic consultants with different areas of expertise will conduct research and act as spokespersons for The Institute and organizations supported by The Institute. Specific activities with economists are discussed throughout the tactics.
- Stimulate reputable public finance economists at key state universities to determine the validity of state revenue forecasts, perhaps on behalf of state business organizations and present arguments against excise taxes in various forums; e.g., meetings with potential coalition members or budget officials.
- Encourage economists to make the case against regressive taxation in meetings with potential coalition members and legislators.
- Retain public finance economists affiliated with non-profit organizations to research the subject and use their findings in forums such as:
- Private meetings with state legislators or staff ;
- formal testimony before government bodies ;
- targeted media appearances;
- speeches before business, civic, labor, and other groups ;
- tax symposia in key states where the proceedings could be published for use in other states ; and
- articles which raise the visibility of key arguments in the business, academic, and popular press.
Appendix: A list of economists in key states who may be willing to act as industry and third-party spokespersons on the tax issue. Following is a list of economists in key states who might assist us as experts receiving honoraria. We have begun contacting them to ensure their willingness and expertise. We are asking each about past experience; work with similar issues; previous work with the industry; published articles or research; and availability.
- Presenting specific members of the House Ways and Means and Senate Finance Committees with arguments prepared by economists with whom they share some common interest; e.g college affiliation, service on the same commission.
- Gaining the support of Citizens for Tax Justice (CTJ), the most influential labor/liberal tax reform group in the country, in opposition to excise taxes.
- Relying on the AFL-CIO -- via The Bakery, Confectionery, and Tobacco Workers Union -- to ensure that the labor/liberal tax package that emerges in the next session of Congress does not include tobacco.
|State||Economists and their institutions|
|California||Thomas Borcherding, Claremont College|
|Connecticut||William McEachern, University of Washington|
|Florida||Richard Wagner, Florida State University|
|Georgia||Fred McChesney, Emory University Law School|
|Illinois||James Heins, University of Illinois|
|Mass.||Harlan Platt, Northeastern University|
|Minnesota||Thomas Stimson, University of Minnesota (St.P)|
|New York||Harold Hochman, City University of New York|
|Ohio||David Klingaman, Ohio University|
|Penn.||Mark Pauly, University of Pennsylvania|
|Texas||Charles Maurice, Texas A&M University|
|Wash.DC.||Robert D Tollison, George Mason University.|
|Wisconsin||Burton Weisbord, University of Wisconsin|
|"Our intent is to have a group of individuals whom we can call upon as needed to testify, conduct special research and discuss their research projects and/or views on excise taxes with budget officials, potential coalition members, legislators and the media."|
|[The only change here is that Yoram Barzel from the University of Washington, had dropped out. (There was always a regular turnover)
This was the core Cash for Comments Economists' Network. Over the years they recruited over 160 professors of economics.]
1988 Oct 25-27 Economic Experts Witness Team Orientation and Media Training Program.
Purpose: To develop and train a corps of economists for testifying at federal and state hearings, and for meetings with legislators.
Participants: We expect approximately 25 individuals in the program (list attached)
- Introduction: Bill Orzechowski (staff economist)
- Tobacco industry's issues and requirements: Bill Cannell (State Activities) and Dick White (Federal Relations)
- Utilization of Economic Witness Team: Jim Savarese and Bob Tollison
- Research Programs: Bob Tollison and Debbie Schoonmaker (includes grants, media tours)
- Legal Briefing: Stan Masters (Shook Hardy & Bacon), David Remes (Covington & Burling), Bernie O'Neill (Shook Hardy & Bacon)
- Media Training Sessions: run by Ogilvy and Mather
Tollison is included in the list of participants. 
|THE CASH-FOR-COMMENTS ECONOMISTS' NETWORK|
|EXTERNAL ORGANISERS AND ADMINISTRATORS|
|Ken Arnold, Ogilvy & Mather. A network organiser in 1985.|
|George R Berman of Dover Management Services. A professional lobbyist Created the initial idea for ICOSI|
|James M Savarese Originally with Ogilvy & Mather PR, then established James Savarese & Associates|
|Leslie Dawson She worked for James Savarese & Associates and Ogilvy & Mather. She was married to Sam Dawson, Political Director at United Steel Worker's Assn.|
|Lance Morgan of BSMG (Sawyer-Miller/Bozell-Sawyer Consulting: became a member of Interpublic Group) - after 1998 began acting as a cut-out between the Tobacco Institute and James Savarese. (maybe with Independent Institute)|
|Robert Higgs Research director of the Independent Institute which took over the network|
|Center for Study of Public Choice|
|Robert D Tollison of George Mason Uni. He was the main contracted organiser, who worked with wife Anna and James Savarese on a $20,000/mth retainer paid via Savarese. He was an economics professor at GMU and also Director of the Center for Study of Public Choice.|
|Anna Tollison Wife and assistant organiser.|
|Richard E Wagner Tollison's right-hand man. Tollison and Wagner co-authored a number of books for the tobacco industry and shared in the operations of the Cash-for-Comments Economists network.|
|Jim Miller III. A Reagan Republican political functionary given the political spoils jobs as director of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), and Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Chairman. Later Pres. of Citizens for a Sound Economy|
|Carol M Robert Organiser/administrator with Center for Study of Public Choice (CSPC)|
|Elizabeth A Masaitis Organiser/administrator with CSPC|
|Committee on Tax & Economic Growth|
|Harold M Hochman TI Advice Committee; Helped with CSPC Major helper|
|Fred McChesney TI Advice Committee; Helped with CSPC Member of the leadership group|
|Thomas Borcherding TI Advice Committee; Helped with CSPC; Member of the leadership group|
|Dolores 'Dee' Martin Economic Adviser and Organiser.|
|TOBACCO INSTITUTE STAFF|
|Dennis M Dyer||Tobaccco Institute Head of PR He also was TI Regional Director for Mass, Vermont, Maine, etc.
Dyer conducted many of the early evaluations of economists. 
|George R Minshew||Tobacco Institute; Head of State Activities Division under Roger Mozingo|
|Fred Panzer||Tobacco Institute (Public Relations & Federal Relations)|
|Susan Stuntz||Tobacco Institute
|Peter G Sparber||Tobacco Institute, then started Sparber & Associates|
|Carol Hrycaj||Tobacco Institute
|Roger Mozingo||Tobacco Institute
Head of Federal Relations
|Debra Schoonmaker||Tobacco Institute
|Karen Fernicola-Suhr||Tobacco Institute
|Jeffrey D Ross||Tobacco Institute Issues Manager from 1986
Ran the CART program. Under Peter Sparber.
|M Hurst Marshall||Tobacco Institute VP and organiser (Mid West Wisconsin Region)|
|Martin J Gleason||Tobacco Institute (Director of Issues Mangement)|
|'Cal' George||Tobacco Institute
|William Prendergast||Tobacco Institute (Federal Relation)|
|Bill Orzechowski||Tobacco Institute Staff economist ; ex DISCUS. Analyst and legislative liason|
|Alan W Kanzenstein||Tobacco Institute Staff statistician -- later via his own company|
|NETWORK ECONOMIST MEMBERS|
|Dominick Armentano||Uni. of Hartford, West Hartford CT||New Haven Register 1st: Mar 85 op-ed Paid $1000. He transferred to Independence Institute in 1989. TI list 1995 shows him still writing op-eds:|
|Burton A Abrams||Uni. of Delaware, Newark, DE||1st: Mar 85 op-ed Willmington News Journal, Paid $1000 In 1988 writing for Sunday News Journal Transferred to Independent Institute in 1989|
|Lee J Alston||Williams College, Williamstown MA
Uni of Colorado, Boulder
|1st: Mar 85 op-ed Paid $1000|
|Dean Ryan C Amacher||Clemson Uni. College of Commerce & Industry||On 1986 TI list of witness for hire
Amacher recruited a number of Clemson economists.
|Gary M Anderson||Californian State Uni, Northridge||On the periphery of the leadership group. 1st: Mar 85 speakers fee $2450. Transferred to independence Institute in 1989.|
|Lee G Anderson||College of Marine Sciences
Uni of Delaware
|Joined network 1986. target was the News Journal Papers (with his op-ed). Lobbied Senators William Roth Jr and Joseph Biden.|
|William Anderson PhD.||Office of Economic Development, City of Chattanooga, TN||He worked with Richard Stroup|
|Terry Anderson||Montana State Uni, Bozeman
Visiting prof. Clemson Uni in 1988.
|Ran PERC) for Hoover Institute.
In 1985 he testified at legislative session on excise taxes. He also worked for oil industry. 1st: Mar 85 TI op-ed paid $1000.
Fired May 1987 as unproductive. Also on American Council on Science & Health (ACSH)
|Scot E Atkinson||EPA/R&D; DOE (Energy)
Inst. for Policy Research, Uni of Wyoming.
|1st: Active in 1985-86 against Senator Packwood|
|Roger A Arnold||Uni of Nevada, Las Vegas||Reason Foundation, Liberty Fund, Granted the Nevada lobby. Wrote op-eds for Las Vegas Review Journal|
|Richard W Ault||Auburn Uni.||A member of Robert Ekelund's sub-network also.|
|Michael Babcock||Dept of Economics, Kansas State Uni. Lawrence||Short term member only in 1986. Shared Kansas with John Howe (School of Bus. Univ of Kansas), Babcock wrote op-eds for Topeka Capital-Journal, Kansas City Kansan, and The Manhattan Mercury.|
|John Bagby||Pennsylvania State College, Philadelphia||A late Business Law recruit in 1986-88 to provide witness services at the Waxman Hearings in Congress, and write articles on Constitutional law.|
|Randolph E Barnett||Illionois Institute of Technology, Chicago-Kent College of Law||He was a late recrut who joined with other lawyers in the 1986-88 period to fight the Waxman Hearings.|
|Joe A Bell||Southwest Missouri State Uni.||Bell shared Misssouri with Thomas Wyrick of the same university. They wrote for the Springfield News Leader. 1995 TI list - still writing op-eds:|
|Bruce L Benson||Florida Uni.||Transferred to Indedepndence Institute mid 1989.|
|Roger D Blackwell||Professor of Marketing Ohio State Uni||A late recruit in 1986-88 to provide witness services at the Waxman Hearings in Congress, and provide testimony on the freedom to advertise.|
|Jean J Boddewyn||Baruch College, City Uni of New York||Belgian-American consultant on advertising issues. Notorious.Sent to Australia.|
|Peter J Boettke||Oakland Uni. Rochester MI
New York University NY
|Transfered to Independence Institute.|
|Thomas Borcherding||Claremont College, Grad School.CA||One of the original group. Also Director, Claremont Center for Economic Policy Studies. Still with Independence Institute in 2000|
|William J Boyes||Arizona State Uni.||Associate of Roger Faith. On 1995 TI list - still writing op-eds:|
|Cecil Bohanon||Ball State Uni.||1st: Mar 85 op-ed Paid $1000. 1995 TI list - still writing op-eds
Co-opted James McClure & Cecil Johnson also
|Donald J Boudreaux||Clemson University||Co-writing a chapter with Adam Pritchard of the 1995 book "Sin Taxes" for the Independent Institute.|
|John H Bowman||Virginia Commonwealth Uni., Richmond||Lincoln Institute of Land Policy 1st: Mar 85 speakers fee $1000. He worked with Michael D Pratt and George E Hoffer.|
|Charles H Breeden||Marquette Uni. Wisc.||Co-wrote with William J Hunter. 1995 TI list - still writing op-eds:|
|Lawrence Brunner||Central Michigan Uni.||Joined 1986. Available to TI Tax hearing 1988/1990.|
|Bill Bryant||Dept of Finance, Uni of Illinois, Champaign
ex-Federal Reserve Bank (St.Louis)
|Editor of the Illinois Business Review, + Dir. Office of Real Estate Research|
|Henry N Butler||School of Business, Texas A&M Uni
George Mason Uni
|1st: Mar 85 speakers fee $2070. Member of the core group.|
|James Buchanan||Virginia Polytechnic
George Mason Uni.
|Guru of the Public Choice Society
President of the Mont Pelerin Society.
|Phillip A Cartwright||Economics Department, Uni of Georgia, Athens GA||He co-wrote a paper "The Relevance of Consumption Benefits from Smoking: An Empirical Assessment" with Dwight R Lee.|
|Dennis L Chinn||Consulting Economist/Lawyer, Bellevue, WA||Worked through Applied Economics Associates Seattle.|
|R Morris Coats||Marshall Uni. Huntington WV
Nicholls State Uni, Thibodaux, LA
|On TI list 1986 witness for hire
Worked with Wendell E Sweetser and Michael M Kurth
|Lloyd Cohen||California Western School of Law||He wrote op-ads for the tobacco industry opposing advertising bans in July 1989.|
|Roger D Congleton||Clarkson Uni. Potsdam NY||1987 Fired over poor productivity in New York, Became Tollison's succesor running the CPSC|
|Jeffrey R Clark||Southwest Missouri Uni
Uni of Tennessee., Chattanooga
|1988 Writing op-eds for Daily Record NJ, later for Memphis Commercial Appeal. On TI 1995 list as still writing op-eds:|
|William Clarritt||Rutgers University, Department of Business and Accounting, Newark, NJ||A late legal recruit in 1986-88 to provide witness services at the Waxman Hearings in Congress, and write articles on Constitutional law.|
|Michael A Crew||Rutgers Uni, Newark NJ
School of Administrative Science
|Very keen; Editor "Applied Economics"
Board of Energy Initiatives Inc.
|D Allen Dalton
Commonly spelled 'Allan'
|Boise State Uni.
Uni of Idaho
|Recruited May 1986. 1988 Writing op-eds for Idaho Press-Tribune. Ran Center for the Study of Market Alternatives.|
|John David||West Virginia Tech. Montgomery||1988-96 Wrote many op-eds for Charleston Gazette' '@ $1200 ea|
|Michael L Davis||Southern Methodist Uni.
Sch Mgmt.Uni of Texas, Dallas
|1988-95 Writing op-eds for Dallas Times HeraldAlso LA Times Syndicate/Times Herald. Shares Texas franchise with Charles Maurice, Morgan Reynolds. On the1995 TI list - still writing op-eds:|
|Arthur T Denzau||Washington Uni, St Louis||Mar 85 op-ed Paid $1000
He was to lobby Rep. Gephardt & Sen. Danforth
|Thomas DiLorenzo||Loyola College, Maryland||Transfered to Independent Institute 1989.|
|Clifford P Dobitz||North Dakota State Uni, Fargo||1985 June they owed him $1100 (paid $2000 to date)|
|John L Dobra||Uni of Nevada, Reno.<||Worked with Tollison at Virginia Polytechnic|
|Steven B Dow||Dept of Business Law, Michigan State University||He wrote op-ads for the tobacco industry opposing advertising bans in the 1987-89 period.|
|Robert D Ebel||Uni. of Minnesota (St Paul)||Urban Inst. Ex.Dir. Minnesota Tax Study Comm.. Also Peat Marwick Policy Econ. Group +Dept HUD. Worked with Thomas Stimson & Thomas Borcherding|
|Randall W Eberts||U of Oregon, Eugene also Texas A&M Uni||Recruited late 1984. Chm. Bronson Healthcare Group. Worked with S Charles Maurice and William Mitchell|
|Robert B Ekelund Jr||Auburn Uni.||Core member: 1st. Mar 85 speakers fee $2,003 Transfered to Ind. Institute 1989.
Ekelund ran a sub-network of Auburn Economists: Richard Ault, David Surman, John Jackson, Robert F Hebert, J Keith Watson and Mark Thornton
They also linked to David Senter at the American Agricultual Movement.
|Roger L Faith||Arizona State Uni. Tempe||He needs two weeks notice as a witness for hire, and will explain why excise taxes are regressive and unfair to consumers. Also writes letters.|
|David Fand||Wayne State Uni. Detroit||Recruited 1986. June 87: Target "Detroit News' - Owed $1250 - Total to date $1250. Michigan state also had Peter Boettke (Oakland U) & Lawrence Brunner (Central Michigan)|
|Susan K Feigenbaum||Uni of Missouri (St.Louis) & Claremont McKenna College.||Econometrician, CPSU and GMU. Her target was ""Kansas City Times|
|Clifford L Fry||Clifford Fry Resources Inc. Bryan Texas||Texas A&M graduate and professional musician.|
|Lowell E Gallaway||Ohio Uni.||Ind. Institute mid 1989.
1995TI list - still writing op-eds:
Business partners with Richard Vedder and David Klingaman
Ran jointly the Buckeye Institute
|Paula A Gant||Auburn University||Co-writing a chapter with Robert Ekelund of the 1995 book "Sin Taxes" for the Independent Institute.|
|K Celeste Gaspari||Uni of Vermont, Burlington||With TI from 1984: available on two weeks notice as a witness for hire. Fell out with TI over payments.|
|David ER Gay||Uni of Arkansas, Fayetteville||Op-eds for Arkansas Gazette. To lobby Rep. Beryl Anthony and Sen. David Pryor|
|Adam C Gifford||California State University, Northridge||Joined in 1995 at Independent Institute working with William Shughart.|
|John A Gray||Loyola College School of Business and Management, Baltimore||A late recruite in 1986-88 to provide witness services at the Waxman Hearings in Congress, and write articles on Constitutional law.|
|Kenneth V Greene||State Uni on New York, Binghampton||Worked for Savarese at O&M before the network was created (with Harold Hochman.)|
|Kevin B Grier||George Mason Uni.||Worked mainly with Richard Wagner|
|Ronald Groeber||Ball State University||He wrote op-ads for the tobacco industry opposing advertising bans in July 1989.|
|Brian L Goff||George Mason Uni, Fairfax, VA
Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY
|Graduate with Center for the Study of Public Choice (co-author with Tollison & Wagner), GMU. Later his franchise territory was Tennessee in 1987. Bowling Green also had Martha Rogers|
|James D Gwartney||Public Sciences Center, Florida State University||He was never formally a part of the network. Cato Institute, Also UK Institute for Economic Affairs (London)|
|Sherman Hanna||Kansas State Uni, Manhattan, KS.||On their 1986 list.|
|Gettysburg College, Gettysburg PA||Mar 85 op-ed Paid $1000|
|Kathy J Hayes||Auburn Uni.
Head of Economics Dept.
|A member of Robert Ekelund' sub-network.|
|Robert F Hebert||Auburn Uni.||Another minor member of Robert Ekelunds, private economists network.|
|Dennis Hein||Augustana College, Sioux Falls, SD||On the TI list 1986, witness for hire|
|James Heins||Uni of Illinois, Champaign, IL||On the TI list 1986 witnesess for hire|
|Robert Higgs||Independent Institute||He was instrumental in moving the network over the Independent Institute control c 1990|
|Richard S Higgins||Deputy Director of the Bureau of Economics,
Howrey & Simon (Major donation channellers to GMU's CSPC)
Berkeley Research Group
|A non-academic member of the network. Higgins had been Deputy Director for Consumer Protection, FTC 1982-86 (with Fred McChesney). He was intimately involved in tobacco industry conspiracies.|
|F Steb Hipple||East Tennessee State, Johnson City, TN||He was a minor player.|
|Harold M Hochman||Public Policy Program/School of Bus.
Baruch College, City Uni. of New York
|Worked for Savarese at O&M before the network was created with Kenneth Greene.|
|George E Hoffer||Virginia Commonwealth Uni, Richmond||Mar 85 speakers fee $1431
He worked with Michael Platt and John Bowman.
|John S Howe||Uni of Kansas||1988 Writing op-eds for The Capital-Journal opposing aircraft smoking bans|
|Randall G Holcombe||Uni.||Transfered to Independent Institute mid 1989.|
|William Hunter||Marquette Uni, Milwaukee||On 1986 witness for hire list
1988 Writing op-eds for Capital Times
|Stephen Huxley||Uni of San Francisco||A minor consultant who didn't last long; His target newspaper was the San Francisco Chronicle.|
|John D Jackson||Auburn Uni.||A member of Robert Ekelund's sub-network also|
|Joseph M Jadlow||Oklahoma State Uni, Eugene OR||Mar 85 op-ed Paid $1000 + speaker's fee of $2,605|
|Cecil Johnson||Ball State Uni, Muncie IN||Associate of Cecil Bohanon who took over after 1987; His target was Representative Jacobs of Indiana.|
|D. Bruce Johnson||Business Law, Texas A&M University||He was a late recruit in 1987 when they expanded the network into Professors of Law, as well as Economics.|
|M Samson Kimenyi||Uni of Mississipi||Joined the network as a graduate student/economist. Later Assistant Prof; Worked with the [[Center for Policy Studies], Clemson Uni: Also Center for the Study of Public Choice at George Mason University.|
|David Klingaman||Ohio Uni.||He was also with Richard Vedder and Lowell Gallaway at the Buckeye Institute for Public Policy Solutions. Buckey received regular donations and grants-in-aid from tobacco. ($10,000 in 1995)|
|Bruce Kobayashi||George Mason University||He was a Professor of Law and a late recruit in 1995 at the Independent Institute.|
|Roger C Kormendi||Uni of Chicago
Dir.Res.Mid-America Institute for Public Policy Research
|Kormendi's think-tank Mid American Institute changed its name to Catalyst Institute and joined the Atlas Group network. In 1984 he attended Treasury hearings in Springfield (secretly on behalf of the tobacco industry). He was interviewed by the Chicago Tribune (Kormendi is a friend of the reporter who covered the hearing) but was caught out and exposed by a USA Today journalist.|
|Michael Kurth||McNeese State Uni. Lake Charles LA||Associates Wendell E Sweetser, and R Morris Coats. 1988 writing op-eds for Shreveport Journal
on TI list 1995 as still writing op-eds.
|David N Laband||Uni. of Maryland, Baltimore/Cantonsville.||With Center for Study of Public Choice; Recruited Oct 1984. On 1986 list of economists available for hire. Very productive until 1987. Suddenly dropped out and moved to Perdue School of Business, Salisbury State Uni.|
|Suuner J LaCroix
aka Sumner La Croix
|Uni of Hawaii-Manoa
Uni of Hawaii, Honolulu
|Recruited in May 1987; His evaluations were good but he was never needed as a witness.|
|Paul Lansing||University of Iowa||He wrote op-ads for the tobacco industry opposing advertising bans in July 1989.|
|Dwight R Lee||Uni. of Georgia, Athens
George Mason Uni (CSPC)
Uni of Florida
Center for Study of American Business, Washington U, St Louis
|Probably second only to Tollison in money-making from the various tobacco schemes. Lee was a ke member of the core group; earning special fees, speaking engagements, etc. 1988 Writing op-eds for Atlanta Journal
Transfered to Independent Institute mid 1989.
1995 on TI list as still writing op-eds:
|Allan M Leiken||School of Health Tech & Mgmt
State Uni of New York, Stony Brook
|Fired May 1987 as unproductive|
|James E Long||Auburn Uni, Atlanta||One of Robert Ekelund's sub-network. Worked in agricultural area; American Family Farm Foundation, David Senter and Keith Stoup's American Agricultural Movement (AAM); In 1990 he is Commissioner of Insurance, North Carolina.|
|Dennis E Logue||Uni of Oklahoma
School of Bus., Dartmouth College, Hanover NH
|On 1985 and 1986 TI lists of witness for hire. Published 1986 report with Tollison on "economic impact of instituting smoking prohibitions"|
|Cotton Mather Lindsay
aka Matt Lindsay
|UCLA research on Health Insurance.
Economics Emory Uni
Clemson Uni, Clemson SC
|On 1986 TI list of witness for hire
Transfered to Independent Institute mid 1989. Assoc of Hoover Institution; Worked also for Pharmaceutical industry.
|Donald P Lyden (lawyer)||Business Law, Cal. State University, Northridge
Southern California (LA region)
|Associate of Gary Anderson. In Los Angeles, his target newspaper was the LA Herald Examiner. (Paid $900 for op-ed in 1987)|
|Jonathan Macey||Cornell Law School||He wrote op-ads for the tobacco industry opposing advertising bans in July 1989.|
|Craig R MacPhee||Uni of Nebraska, Lincoln||Associate of Dolores Martin. He replaces her 1986-91 period. His target newspaper was Lincoln Journal (paid $1,500 for planted op-ed 06/01/87).|
|Michael T Maloney||Clemson Uni, South Carolina||Center for Policy Studies; 1986 ""Employment Effects of Smoking Bans in Public Accommodations"with Cotton Mather Lindsay; Co-writer with R. Tollison, CM Lindsay, B Yandle; Works with Citizens for a Sound Economy Foundation (Now FreedomWorks)|
|Dolores T Martin||Uni of Nebraska, Lincoln NB||Early member of Committee on Taxation and Economic Growth in 1984; testified at a Minneapolis hearing. On the 1986 TI list as witness for hire. Shared NB franchise with [[Craig MacPhee]. Collaborated with Roger Riefler, Richard Wagner|
|Charles F Mason
(aka Chuck Masen)
|Uni of Wyoming, Laramie||He shared the Wyoming franchise with Todd Sandler , Scott E Atkinson; planted an op-ed on Laramie Boomerang 4/14/87; Paid $1025.|
|S Charles Maurice||Texas A&M Uni. College Station.||1988 Writing op-eds for Houston Post. Worked with Hoover Institute. On Exec Committee of Southern Economic Assoc. On editorial board of their Journal. Shares Texas franchise with Michael Davis, Morgan Reynolds|
|Fred S McChesney||With FTC during Reagan Administration
Emory Uni., School of Law, Atlanta, GA
|McChesney was Ass. Dir. Policy and Evaluation, Bureau of Consumer Protection, 1981-83. Worked extensively with Richard Higgins (also ex FTC). Core network member. Transferred to Independent Institute mid 1989.|
|James E McClure||Ball State Uni, Muncie IN||Co-writer of op-eds with Cecil Bohanon; He was recruited in1986, and McClure and Bohanon then enlisted Stephan F Gohmann, Clarence R Deitsch, and Lee C Spector. McClure was paid $3k in 1993 for op-eds to Indianapolis Star and Muncie Star.|
|Robert E McCormick||Clemson Uni, North Carolina
Graduate School of Management, Rochester Uni.
|Paid $1125 by lawyers or ICOSI/SAWP work in 1979; 1984 on TI List. [Center for Policy Studies]]; Res. Ass. Arthur M. Spiro Center for Entrepreneurial Leadership; PERC.|
|William A McEachern||Uni of Washington (Connecticut) (1984)
Uni of Connecticut
|Early recruit in 1984. Wrote "Economics: A Contemporary Introduction".|
|Richard B McKenzie||Business Studies/Economics, Idaho University
the Washington University, St Louis, Missouri
University of California, Irvine
Clemson University, North Carolina
|One of their most productive network lackeys. Early recruit: Research Associate, [Center for the Study of Public Choice]; also with American Enterprise Institute, Hoover, Heritage, Cato, Competitive Economy Found., Citizens for a Sound Economy, Alexis de Tocqueville.|
|Robert C McMahon||Uni of Southern Maine, Portland||Early 1985: testified on negative impacts of Public Smoking in Maine.|
|Arthur Mead||Uni of Rohde Island, Kingston||On 1986 TI list of witness for Hire|
|Paul L Menchik||Michigan State Uni, E. Lansing||1st: Mar 85 op-ed Paid $1000|
|John F Militello||Wharton Ctr for Applied Research, Philadelphia||On 1986 TI list of witness for hire|
|William C Mitchell||Pol Sci Dept, Uni of Oregon||1985 May recruited
1988 Writing op-eds for Register-Guard
1995 on TI list as still writing op-eds:
|Richard Nathan||Ohio State University, Columbus Ohio||A late legal recruit in 1986-88 to provide witness services at the Waxman Hearings in Congress, and write articles on Constitutional law.|
(aka Greg Neuhaus)
|(Business Faculty) Uni of Michigan, Ann Arbor
(Insurance and Finance) Uni of South Carolina
|Co-author with Robert Tollison. Did editorial briefings and testified on a Michigan smoking restriction bill 1986.|
|Marvin E Newman||Law and Ethics at the Rollins College in Winter Park, Florida||A late recruit in 1987 when they extended into law and business; he was an international lawyer with a law firm at Orlando, Florida.|
|James A Papke||Uni of Purdue||President of the National Tax Association /Tax Institute of America; Resume sent to Tobcco Institute April '85. He had a computerized model which can "calculate tax liability".|
|Allen M Parkman||Anderson School of Management, Uni of New Mexico, Alburquerque||Ex Reagan Admin. President's Council of Economic Advisers, Washington, DC. 1986 on TI list of witness for hire.
1995 on TI list as still writing op-eds:
|Mark V Pauly||Wharton School, Uni of Pennsylvania||Director of the Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics. Worked with both Tollison and Amacher. Transfered to Independent Institute mid 1989.|
|William H Peterson||Uni of Tennessee-Chatanooga||On 1986 TI Witness for hire list. Shared Tennessee franchise with [William Anderson]] Office of Economic Development, City of Chattanooga - later with Jeffrey R Clark.|
|Harlan D Platt||Northeastern Uni, Massachusetts||1984 foundation member, but doesn't seem to have continued with the scam.|
|Michael D Pratt||Virginia Commonwealth Uni.||Mar 85 speakers fee $1288
He worked with George E Hoffer and John Bowman
|Thomas F Pogue||Uni. of Iowa, Iowa City||1985 wrote an op-ed in the Des Moines Register on May 1. Copies were sent to Senate Finance Member Grassley. CV sent to Tobacco Institute May '87. Pogue was assisting TI in Minnesota, while living in Iowa. writing "The Industry's Best Arguments Against Cigarette Excises in Minnesota."|
|Barry W Poulson||Uni. of Colorado, Boulder CO||1995 on TI list as still writing op-eds:
Wrote op-ed attacking public smoking legislation in Colorado Springs (Aug 4 1985). He lost his job circ 1985 and used the phantom title of '"Senior Fellow, Independent Institute thereafter.
|Edward O Price||Oklahoma State Uni, Stillwater||Worked briefly with Joseph Jadlow in 1983 (later rivalry for state franchaise). 1995 on TI list as still writing op-eds:|
|Adam C Prichard||Clemson University||Co-writing a chapter with Donald Boudreaux of the 1995 book "Sin Taxes" for the Independent Institute.|
|Robert Pulsinelli||Western Kentucky Uni.
Oklahoma State Uni
|1995 on TI list as still writing op-eds:|
|Raymond Raab||Uni of Minnesota-Duluth, MN||1986 TI's witness for hire list|
|David W Rasmussen||Florida State University||Co-writing a chapter with Bruce Benson of the 1995 book "Sin Taxes" for the Independent Institute.|
|David A Reese||Gustavus Adolphus College, St Peter MN||A late legal recruit in 1986-88 to provide witness services at the Waxman Hearings in Congress, and write articles on Constitutional law.|
|Roger Riefler||Uni of Nebraska, Lincoln||Co-wrote with Dolores Martin. His op-eds were to be directed at the Omaha World-Herald. Not in favour after 1987.|
|Terrance R Ridgeway
(aka Terry Ridgeway)
|Uni of Nevada, Las Vegas||Later member of network. 1995-1999 on TI list as still writing op-eds:|
|Mario J Rizzo||New York University NY.||He shared this region with Boon Yoon. There is no documents establishing that he ever succeeded in doing anything for the TI. Editor "Time, Uncertainty and Disequilibrium", Lexington: D.C. Heath & Co., Dr Richmond Rizzo, (aka 'Ray') was Region II VP for the Tobacco Institute.|
|Morgan O Reynolds||Texas A&M Uni, College Station||He shared Texas franchaise with S Charles Maurice and Michael Davis|
|Simon Rottenberg||Uni of Massachusetts, Amhurst||He shared the state with David Tuerck of Suffolk Uni. Also with American Enterprise Institute. Wrote papers "Unintended Consequences, The Probable Effects of Mandated Medical Insurance," for CATO Review. Also Independent Institute|
|'Randy' Rucker||North Carolina State Uni, Raleigh, NC.||On TI 1986 list as witness for hire.|
|John C Ruhnka||University of Colorado||One of the later recruits in 1987 when the network was extended into business law.|
|Richard P Saba||Auburn University, Alabama||One of Robert Ekelund's sub-network (via Ekelund & Associates,Inc)|
|Todd Sandler||Uni of Wyoming, Laramie||1986 TI Witness for hire list1988 Writing op-eds for Cedar Rapids Gazette|
|David S Saurman||San Jose State University, California
|In 1981 (before network) he planted an op-ed on "Prop 99" or tobacco with San Jose Mercury News. Later a member of Robert Ekelund's sub-network. Also with Center for Study of Public Choice|
|Mark Schmitz||Washington State tax consultant, Seattle WA.||1985 Rejected as a legislative witness by TI evaluation. Replaced by Dennis L. Chinn of Bellvue WA|
|Robert L Sexton||Pepperdine University, Malibu CA||Worked for a time with Gary M Galles Recruited to the network early1995 during an expansion phase. Member of a minor sub-net run by Dwight Lee/td>|
|Gordon O Shuford||South California Department of Revenue||Minor economist - co-writer with Richard Higgins of paper "Smokers' Subsidy of Nonsmokers' Retirement Benefits"|
|William F Shughart III||FCC Bureau of Economics
Clemson University, Cal.
George Mason Uni.
Uni of Mississippi
|Leadership Group, Mar 85 speakers fee $2529
Transfered to Independent Institute mid 1989 (key organiser).
1995 on TI list as still writing op-eds:
|Robert J Staaf||Clemson University, North Carolina||Prof of Law & Economics. Member of Ryan Amacher' group. Also Center for Study of Public Choice. Op-eds in Columbia, a South Carolina newspaper. Promoted his credibility as a "non-smoker".|
|Thomas Stimson||Uni of Minnesota, St Paul's||Temporary member only. On 1984 TI list as a minor agricultural economist. Comments on Packwood tax plan|
|Wendell E Sweetser||Marshall Uni, Huntington WV||On TI 1986 list of witnesses for hire
Closely associated with R Morris Coats, and Michael M Kurth
|Richard L Stroup||Director Policy, Interior Department (Reagan/Watt)
Montana State Uni.
|1983 fired from Reagan Admin (with James Watt). 1985 paid $1000 for testimony Kansas/Montana. Transferred to Independent Institute mid 1989.
Chairman of joint task force Political Economy Research Center/ National Center for Policy Analysis on "Progressive Environmentalism"
|George M Sullivan||Rochester Institute of Technology, College of Business, Rochester, NY|
|Mark C Thornton||Graduate student Auburn Uni,
Ludwig von Mises Institute
|Friend and collaborator with Robert Ekelund. Thornton was recruited as a graduate student. He and Ekelund were also both at von Mises Institute. Transferred to Independent Institute mid 1989.
A core member of Ekelund's sub-network.
|Robert D Tollison||Virginia Polytechnic Inst
George Mason Uni., Fairfax VA
Dir. Center for Study of Public Choice
|Tollison was in partnership with James Savarese in running the network. He worked for tobacco with Richard Wagner from 1982. Mar 85 two speaker fees - $5000 + $6375. See Admin section above.|
|Mark Toma||Miami University, Oxford, Ohio||Recruited in 1987 Then later fired because of a lack of productivity in Ohio. Ohio work handed over to Richard Vedder|
|David G Tuerck||Economic Analysis Group, Coopers & Lybrand, Wash. DC
Wharton Applied Research Center
Beacon Hill Institute
Suffolk Uni, Boston.
|1987 ec TI List shows he has been formally recruited.
1988 Writing op-eds for The Boston Globe
Ran Center for Research on Advertising at AEI. Editor of 'Political Economy of Advertising,'
|Gordon Tullock||Virginia Polytechnic
George Mason Uni.
|Listed as one of the four gurus of Public Choice cult. Worked alongside James Buchanan (co-authors). Center for Study of Public Choice. Worked extensively for the tobacco industry.|
|Richard K Vedder||Ohio University, Athens OH||Worked with Lowell Gallaway & David Klingaman. Ran Buckeye Institute for Public Policy Solutions. Transferred under control of Independent Institute mid 1989.|
(aka Bruce Vermeullen)
|Colby College, Waterville Maine||Short-term network member only. He submitted an op-ed to Portland Press Herald and sent letters to Sen. Cohen and Mitchell (4/3/86) No success.|
|Richard E Wagner||Florida State Uni, Tallahassee
George Mason Uni.
Research Fellow/Advisor Independent Institute
|Writing partner of Robert Tollison, and at the top level In the Leadership Group
Mar 85 op-ed Paid $1000+$2716
Transfered to Independent Institute mid 1989.
|J Keith Watson||Auburn University, Alabama.
Uni of SouthWestern Louisiana
|Mar 85 speakers fee $1000
1986 Part of Ekelund's subnetwork. Produced a study guide with Ekelund and Tollison. He did media tours for tobacco to promote his and Tollison's books.
|Burton A Weisbrod||Uni of Wisconsin
|Swiss specialist in Health Economics who temporarily joined network. Doesn't seem to have done anything for them (but they quote his papers). They used the 'death-benfits argument that earlier death reduces public expenditure with smokers.|
|Douglas F Whitman||University of Kansas, School of Law||He was a late recruit to the network. In the 1986-88 period they began recruiting a few lawyers to counter the claims made by the New York State Bar Association, and the threat posed by the Waxman Hearings in Congress.|
|Anthony Wiener||Polytechnic University of New York, School of Management, Brooklyn|
|Walter E Williams||George Mason Uni, Fairfax VA
Newspaper columnist with Creators' Syndicate (Moonies)
Later Temple Uni and GMU.
|African-American, and close associate of Thomas Sowell (Urban Institute). Enthusiast of R/W think-tanks; member of Reason Foundation, CSPC, IRET, Citizens for Tax Justice, Mont Pelerin, Heartland, FEE, Independent Institute etc,|
|Daniel P Williamson||Californian Polytechnic, San Luis||He was a temporary recruit to the network, who has later rejected. He had criticised their papers and fallacious economic claims.|
|Paul W Wilson||Uni of Georgia, Athens||Recruited by Dwight Lee. He was a temporary associate of network only. Paid $625 in Sept 1988|
|Thomas L Wyrick||Southwest Missouri State Uni., Springield
Missouri State + Virginia Polytechnic
|On the 1986 TI list of economists for sale
1988 Writing op-eds for The News-Leader
|Bruce Yandle||Clemson University||Part of Ryan Amacher's stable. Far right-wing libertarian ideologue; prominent think-tanker with Cato, Heritage, American Enterprise. Transfered to Independent Institute mid 1989. Associate of ]]Richard McKenzie]].|
|Brenda Yelvington||Clemson University||She was yet another from Clemson University. A late recruit in 1995 when they had already shifted to the Independent Institute|
|Boon Yoon||State Uni of New York, Binghamton.||On the 1986 TI list of mercenary economists|
|Richard O Zerbe||State Uni of Washington
School of Public Affairs
|Editor of "Research in Law & Economics" journal
Dir. Center for Benefit-Cost Analysis
|Benjamin Zycher||The Rand Corporation
Uni Cal Los Angeles
|Associated with Lewis Solmon and his Milken Institute . Also Cotton Mather Lindsay|
|FELLOW TRAVELLERS -- ASSOCIATES AND ASSISTANTS|
|Dean Tipps||Union official||Dir. of Citizens for Tax Justice|
|David C Wilhelm||AFL-CIO connections; Major Democrat lobbyist||Citizens for Tax Justice, Labor Management Committee, and The Strategy Group|
|Richard A Epstein||Law professor Uni of Chicago/New York Uni, American Enterprise Institute PM consultant..|
|John C Goodman||TASSC, NCPA, Reason, PErC, etc.||think-tank specialist;CEO National Center for Public Policy Research|
|Peter W Huber||Senior Fellow, Manhattan Institute||-- lobbyist for hire, also climate denier|
|Paul Craig Roberts||-- loaned lobbyist/columnist from National Association of Manufacturers|
|Paul Rubin||Emory University,||tobacco lobbyist, Cato Institute, Glassman-Oliver Economic Consultants Inc|
|S Fred Singer||Science and Environmental Policy Project (SEPP)
Created by APCO for Philip Morris
|contract corporate lobbyist with his wife Candace C Crandall and br-in-law Robert W Crandall|
|Robert W Crandall||Brookings Institution||Lobbyist: brother of Candace C Crandall, br-in-law of S Fred Singer|
|Russell S Sobel||briefly with West Virginia University
Also College of Charleson
|professional lobbyist; Independent Institute|
|Stephen H Hanke||Johns Hopkins University, Professor of Economics,||Consulting editor of tobacco-owned Journal of Regulation and Social Cost|
|Paul W McCracken||Business Admin, University of Michigan,||Chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers (Nixon Admin), Independent Institute.|
The Savarese-Tollison Cash for Comments Economists Network appears to have broken up around 1990, but Savarese continued to run the TI's Labor Management Committee operation for most of the decade -- often using Tollison just as one source (but he was better paid than the others). The core network of economists transfered over to the Independent Institute under William Shughart in the late 1980s, and some of these economists were still being paid by the Tobacco Institute in 1995.
It also became clear that James Savarese had remained linked to Ogilvy & Mather for most of the decade in which the network operated - the distinction between O&M and James Savarese & Associates was probably little more than a legal fiction. This explains why there was no evidence of enmity between O&M executives and Savarese during the 1980s, and why his private company often used the same address. In fact, he abruptly turned up again in 1993 as leader of the company's tobacco lobbyist team (now known as Ogilvy Adams & Rinehart) 
Over time -- and sometimes abruptly -- some of these economists had dropped out of the operation, despite it almost doubling the salary of the more successful. Some of the articles were obviouly unpublishable, and since they were paid on results this may have proved to be unsatisfactory. Some economists obviously did not like their articles being modified by the Tobacco Institute, and [who knows] ... maybe some even developed a conscience?
A few new recruits were added regularly to the networks in the 1992 - 1994 period, but the tobacco companies themselves tended to take control of the biomedical research specialist network [probably because of the legal necessity of dealing with them through lawyers to avoid the risk of legal 'discovery'].
Of the many academic cash-for-comments networks, the economists' lasted the longest, and it was also the most productive from the industry viewpoint.
|Content vs. Purpose?|
|The question is not what was said in these articles, but rather the reasons why they were said.
If your vision of economics is merely that it is a form of commercial bookkeeping (a view that prevailed until the global financial crisis), then clearly the early deaths of people who have passed their social usefulness is of benefit to the survivors. The elderly are a burden on the working population and the tax system,
|PHANTOM THINK-TANKS -- The Independent Institute|
|The temptation is to treat all think-tanks as if they were real policy/advocate organisations with staff and participating members holding similar political and social ideas. This is probably true for some -- but for others, these organisations are ephemeral: they don't even have enough substance to be classed as an 'astroturf'.
David Theroux, the founder and 'President' of the Independent Institute in Oakland CA reveals this in his explanatory note to the Tobacco Institute, explaining how his phantom organisation was able to churn out "six to ten major books per year".
The chapters in the books were still sent to the Tobacco Institute for "improvements", checking and legal clearance, then returned for peer review by their fellow network associates.   In fact the Independent Institute was linked to the Cato Institute, and they shared staff and 'fellows'.
Two of the Cash for Comment Economists Network who used the Independent Institute to construct a veneer of status and veracity to support their fabricated op-eds were:
In late 1993 Theroux's phantom Independent Institute received $56,750 from RJ Reynolds and $21,000 from Philip Morris. 
1994: The crucial year when the tobacco companies accepted they were losing: internal documents being exposed to public scrutiny. Hillary Clinton's health task-force focused on tobacco; the Waxman hearings and whistleblowers exposed them: class action suits were filed against the cigarette companies.
1994 Mar: Florida judge Robert P Kaye was over-ruled by his state appeal court. He was forced to allow 60,000 flight attendants to jointly sue US tobacco companies for health difficulties they claim were caused by inhaling passengers' cigarette smoke. (This was the first class-action against tobacco.) 
1994 Apr 18 Time Magazine asks "Is it all over for Smokers: The battle against tobacco is turning into a rout." Joycelyn Elders, Surgeon General, says:
1994 May 23: Mike Moore, the Attorney-General of Mississippi, filed suit against the tobacco companies to recover medical costs for tobacco-related illnesses.
The tobacco companies were anxious to get the federal law passed before the Mississippi case came to trial - further negotiations were now done on a state by state basis. So they settled Mississippi, then later Florida and Texas. A dozen other States lined up, and this formed the basis for Minnesota settlement.
1994 Aug 19: Hubert H Humphrey III, the Attorney-General of Minnesota also acted. The Minnesota court set a cut-off date: documents produced before this time must be produced by Philip Morris and placed in a public Depository in Minnesota . (They became generally available after the Master Settlement Agreement in1996)