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Coal transport accidents

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This article is part of the CoalSwarm coverage of coal transport accidents
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Over the past three decades, the volume of the international coal trade has quadrupled, rising from 291,000 tonnes in 1982 to 1,283,000 tonnes in 2012.[1] With that growth has come an increase in shipping accidents, resulting in loss of life to crews; damage to harbors, reefs, and other marine ecosystems; and financial losses for shippers and insurers.

Coal shipping accidents

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Date Year Location of accident Country Ship name Port of departure Destination Load (tonnes) Outcome of accident
May 24 1966 Pandora Bank, Cape Reinga New Zealand MV Kaitawa Westport Portland, Whangarei 2682 Ship sank, 29 crew died[2]
February 12 1983 Chincoteague, Virgina United States Marine Electric Norfolk, Virgina Somerset, Massachussetts 22500 Ship sank, 31 crew died[3]
December 27 1983 Monagahela River, Pennsylvania United States Unnamed barge and tug Morgantown, West Virgina Duquesne Light Co, Pittsburgh 816 Barge sank when valve froze open, refloated[4]
September 8 2000 off Portovesme, Sardinia Italy Eurobulker IV 12700 Ran aground, crew evacuated, sank October 2 [5]
December 22 2001 150 km off the Azores island of Graciosa, Atlantic Ocean Colombia Christopher Puerto Bolivar Redcar, United Kingdom 160000 ship sank with loss of 27 crew.[6]
June 8 2007 Nobbys Beach, Newcastle (Article) Australia Pasha Bulker Newcastle empty at time of accident grounded on beach, salvaged, repaired and renamed MV Drake.[7]
January 15 2008 Taiwan unknown Capsized, eight crew reported killed[8]
February 5 2010 Barbers Point Harbor, Hawaii, United States United States Vogetrader unknown Hawaii, United States unknown The ship grounded on a coral reef Barbers Point Harbor, Hawaii. In 2014 it was announced that the shipowner, Denak Ship Management and Vogetrader Shipping Inc., would pay $840,000 to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for the damage to the reef.[9]
April 3 2010 70km off Great Keppel Island, Australia (Article) Australia Shen Neng 1 Gladstone China 65000 ran aground, minor oil spill, repaired and continued on journey[10]
December 1 2010 near Rio Cordoba port Colombia Unknown - two barges Rio Cordoba 3000 Two barges sank[11]
December 24 2010 Trenton Channel in Detroit United States McKee Sons unknown Detroit Edison Pier approx 13,000 tonnes The 579-foot ship, which was being pushed by the tug Invincible, ran aground on Christmas Eve. It was was freed two days later with no damage reported.[12][13]
August 3 2011 near Transylvania, Louisiana United States unnamed barge unknown barge sank after breaking free from tug.[14]
August 4 2011 off the coast of Mumbai (Article) India MV Rak Lubuk Tutung, Indonesia Dahej, Gujarat, India 60000 Sank, oil spill of up to 290 tones of fuel oil.[15]
September 27 2011 Yangtze River, Wuhan City, Hubei Province China unnamed barge 4080 barge sank, salvaged, 11 crew rescued.[16]
January 19 2012 Monongahela River, Pittsburgh. United States ING 5061 unknown barge sank, another damaged and pinned against bridge.[17] [18]
August 16 2012 Sheikhbaria River India MV Marine 7 Mongla Port Kolkata Port 400 Sank[19]
August 15 2012 St Mary's River, Michigan United States Paul R. Tregurtha 56,000 Damaged hull, rudder[20][21]
December 4 2012 off the coast of Sile, Istanbul province, Turkey Turkey Volgo-Balt 199, Russia Antalya, Turkey 27 ship sank[22]
December 9 2012 Westshore Terminals Canada Cape Apricot Westshore Terminals unknown Coal ship destroyed 100 metres of coal conveyer system; under control of pilot.[23]
January 13 2013 Puerto Drummond (Article) Colombia unnamed barge Puerto Drummond approx 2,000 tonnes Barge threatened with sinking; company dumped coal overboard.[24]
February 16 2013 off the coast of Pangasinan province Philippines M/V Harita Bauxite Indonesia China ship sank, Reported that 1 crewman dies and 14 were missing.[25]
March 24 2013 Mississippi River near Cape Girardeau, Missouri United States 3 unnamed barges unknown 313 laden coal barges break loose from tug, 3 damaged and partially sunk.[26]
August 19 2013 off Richards Bay (Article) South Africa MV Smart Richards Bay China 127000 Ship sank. Crew rescued.[27]
January 20 2014 Batanghari River, Jambi, Sumatra Indonesia Unnamed barge and tug Barge and tug sank, 2 crew missing.[28]
July 14 2014 Port Rupert, British Columbia (Article) Canada Amakusa Island Port Rupert 80000 Grounded, ripped 2 metre hole in ourter hull, temporary repairs and continued.[29]
August 28 2014 five nautical miles southeast of Ha Mai island in Hai Phong (Article) Vietnam Phu Cuong 0148 2700 Sank with six crew initially reported as missing but later rescued.[30] [31]
September 20 2014 near Bayfront Festival Park, Duluth Harbor, Minnesota United States Paul R. Tregurtha Duluth, Minnesota 62,000 tonnes Grounded when it failed to make a turn. No damage or injuries.[32][33]
November 3 2014 near bridge connecting Grosse Ile and Trenton, Detroit River, Michigan United States unknown Toledo Trenton, Michigan 10-15,000 tonnes The ship grounded near the bridge connecting Grosse Ile and Trenton; bridge closed briefly; no damage and no injries.[34]
September 9 2014 Barney Island Coal Terminal, Queensland, Australia Australia Ulusoy-12 Gladstone unknown approximately 40,000 tonnes One of the mooring lines of the ship broke and the ship swung across the shipping lane of Gladstone Harbour and grounded. No damage to the ship or the environment was reported. After an inspection of the engine and steering the ship left the port.[35] [36]
July 27 2015 Qisha port, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China China Names of 5 ships unknown unknown Qisha, China unknown Five Vietnamese-registered coal ships sank, one was grounded. It was reported that 48 crew from the six vessels were rescued.[37]
October 2015 Passur Bangladesh unknown unknown unknown unknown A fully loaded coal barge sank in Passur near the Sundarbans.[38]
February 2016 Sundarbans World Heritage site Bangladesh Sea Horse unknown unknown 1245 tonnes The Sea Horse, a large bulk cargo vessel carrying 1245 tonnes of coal, sank in the Shela River inside the Sundarbans World Heritage site in Bangladesh. In addition to the large amount of coal, the spill included hundreds of gallons of fuel oil and other toxic cantaminants[38]
February 2016 Faux Cap, southwestern coast Madagascar New Mykonos Richards Bay, South Africa Vizag port, India 160,000 tonnes The New Mykonos rammed into a sandbar and got stuck off Faux Cap. After days of pounding by the sea, the boat broke in two and sank, with some coal spilling into the sea and some structure remaining visible.[39]
January 2017 south of Hiron Point, Bay of Bengal (Article) Bangladesh MV Aij Gati unknown Noapara, Bangaldesh 1,000 tonnes MV Aij Gati, carrying more than 1,000 tonnes of coal, sank 10-15 kilometres south of Hiron Point and about 100km from Mongla Port. The site of the sinking was reported as being only 22km from the Sundarbans, the world's largest mangrove forest.[40]

Coal ship and barge accidents

Coal transport accidents include:

  • May 24, 1966: The MV Kaitawa sank off Cape Reinga in New Zealand with the loss of all 29 crew. The ship was carrying 2957 tons of coal from Westport on the South Island to Portland at Whangarei on New Zealand's North Island.[41]
  • February 12, 1983: The Marine Electric sank off the coast of Chincoteague, Virgina while loaded with approximately 24,800 tons of coal which were destined for a power station at Somerset, Massachussetts. 31 crew died with only three surviving.[42]
  • December 25,1983: A valve on an unnamed barge froze open allowing one of three barges in a lock on the Monongahela River in Pennsylvania to fill with water and sink. The barge was carrying 900 tons of coal.[43]
  • September 8, 2000: The Eurobulker IV ran aground off the coast of Portovesme, Sardinia, Italy. The ship, which was registered in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, was carrying approximately 14,000 tons of coal. The ships crew were evacuated at the time of the grounding. Efforts were made to remove the cargo from the ships holds but the operation was suspended due to bad weather. In a storm the ship split in two and sank on October 2.[44]
  • December 22, 2001: The Christopher sank near the Azores, Portugal killing all 27 crew members. The ship was carrying 160,000 tonnes of coal from Colombia to the United Kingdom.[45]
  • June 8, 2007: On June 8, 2007 the 'MV Pasha Bulker' ran aground on Nobbys Beach in Newcastle, New South Wales. Early on the morning of 8 June 2007, Newcastle Port Corporation radioed the 56 moored ships waiting off the coast to load coal to warn them to move out to sea to escape an approaching storm.[46] The Pasha Bulker, which was empty at the time, did not heed the warning and ran aground.[47] The Australian Transport Safety Bureau released a report into the grounding and identified several safety issues.[48] [49] (See Pasha Bulker coal ship runs aground at Newcastle, Australia for more details.)
  • January 15, 2008: Taiwan: a Panamanian cargo ship transporting coal from Hong Kong was capsized by a wave near Taiwan. All eight crew members died.[50]
  • February 5, 2010: The Vogetrader grounded on a reef on its way to Barbers Point Harbor, Hawaii, United States. It was reported that the ship's grounding damaged over 100,000 coral colonies. In 2014 it was announced that the shipowner, Denak Ship Management and Vogetrader Shipping Inc., would pay $840,000 to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for the damage to the reef.[51]
  • April 3, 2010: On 3 April 2010, Shen Neng 1 was transiting from Gladstone, Queensland to China carrying a cargo of 65,000 tonnes of coal, she ran aground 70km off Great Keppel Island, Australia.[52] She was severely damaged on her port side, and a 3 km long oil slick was later reported to have been seen.[53] The accident occurred in a restricted area which forms part of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, a World Heritage Site designated by UNESCO.[52] Two investigations were held into the grounding, one by the Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA) and the Australian Transport Safety Bureau (ATSB).[54] The preliminary ATSB investigation found fatigue as the major contributor to the grounding.[55] (See Shen Neng 1 bulk carrier crashing into the Great Barrier Reef for more details).
  • approx December 16, 2010: Bloomberg report that a barge owned by Vale sank "this week". The report states that the barge was carrying 70 tonnes of coal belonging to Vale and 3000 tonnes belonging to "another exporter".[56]
  • December 24, 2010: The 579-foot ship McKee Sons, which was being pushed by the tug Invincible, ran aground in the Trenton Channel in Detroit on Christmas Eve on its way to the Detroit Edison Pier. It was was freed two days later with no damage reported.[57][58]
  • May 8, 2011: A ship loaded with coal ran aground and destroyed a large portion of a marine sanctuary in the southern Philippines, damaging coral reefs in the Sarangani Bay. The Panamanian-registered ship with 21 Filipino crew members was headed to India from Australia carrying 65,000 tons of coal. An investigation showed the ship’s crew miscalculated its path and sailed into shallow waters.[59]
  • August 4, 2011: The Sally Bromfield was towing 35 barges on the Mississippi River near Transylvania in north Louisiana. A coal barge sank in the river channel. It was reported that another barge was partially submerged and eight others damaged. However, it was unclear whether these too were carrying coal.[60]
  • August 5, 2011: The Panamanian-registered MV Rak, which was carrying 60,000 tonnes of Indonesian coal, sank approximately 20 nautical miles off the Mumbai. The inspector general of the Coast Guard, Mr SPS Basra, stated that the suspected cause was leaks in the hull allowing water into the ship's holds. The ship was also carrying 290 tons of fuel oil and 50 tons of diesel at the time of sinking.[61] (See The sinking of the MV Rak off Mumbai, India for more details).
  • September 27, 2011: A coal barge travelling on the Yangtze River in Wuhan City, Hubei Province in China sank with 4500 tons of coal on board. The eleven crew were rescued and salvage of the ship undertaken.[62]
  • January 19, 2012: The Marge Mcfarlin was towing 12 laden coal barges on the Monongahela River when they broke free and several struck the Liberty Street Bridge in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Two of the barges sank.[63] [64]
  • August 16, 2012: The MV Marine 7 sank near Mongla Port in Bangladesh after colliding with two other ships. The ship was carrying 400 tonnes of coal.[65]
  • December 4, 2012: The Volgo-Balt 199 sank off the coast of Sile in Turkey during a storm. The ship was carrying 33 tons of Russian coal to Antalya, Turkey. It was reported that 1 of the crew died while three rescuers also died when their ship sank. Twelve crew from the two ships were reported missing.[66]
  • December 9, 2012: When the coal carrier the Cape Apricot was docking at Westshore Terminals in Roberts Bank it destroyed a section of the offshore coal conveyor system and roadway. The Vancouver Sun reported that the accident happened at 1 a.m. when the ship "slammed into a trestle, the only link between the berth and the terminal, destroying more than 100 metres of it. The ship went right through the causeway, taking a road, the coal-carrying conveyor belt, and electric and water lines with it." The ship was under the control of a pilot at the time and an unspecified quantity of coal spilled into the water.[67]
  • January 13, 2013: the crew of a barge owned by the Drummond Company dumped 2,000 tonnes of coal into the ocean in an unsuccessful bid to avoid the barge sinking. Drummond did not report the sinking to Colombian environmental authorities until 17 days after the accident even though its environmental licence required the company to report such an event within a maximum of three days. Director of the Colombian Environmental Licensing Agency (ANLA), Luz Helena Sarmiento, accused Drummond of covering the accident up. Drummond claimed the coal was dumped overboard to save lives but Sarmiento said that the company's licence did not allow it to dump into the ocean to save the barge.[68] In 2011 Drummond exported approximately 25 million tons of coal from its mines near La Loma through Puerto Drummond.[69] (See Drummond dumps coal overboard to prevent barge sinking for more details).
  • February 16, 2013: A Myanmar ship carrying 24 crewmen and a cargo of coal lost engine power and later sank off the coast of Pangasinan province in northwestern Philippines. The ship was en route to China with a load of Indonesian coal. It was reported that one crew member had died and fourteen others were missing. Nine crew were rescued with two of them injured.[70]
  • March 24, 2013: The tug Sheila Johnson was towing 25 coal-laden barges the Mississippi River near Cape Girardeau, Missouri and was reported to have hit something in the water resulting in 13 barges breaking loose. Three barges were damaged and partially sank.[71]
  • August 19, 2013 : A Greek-owned but Panamanian registered ship, MV Smart, was carrying an estimated 140,000 tonnes of South African coal when it was grounded on a sandbank after loading at the Richards Bay Coal Terminal.[72] The MV Smart was carrying a shipment of coal to the Fangcheng port in China. After the ship became stranded three tug boats attempted to pull the vessel off but later in the day it buckled and then broke in two. The crew of 23 were airlifted off the ship.[73] The MV Smart was reported to be carrying up to 2,000 tonnes of oil. The Department of Environmental Affairs said that the priority of an emergency response team was to protect the Mhlathuze Sanctuary south of the wreck. (See Sinking of the MV Smart near Richards Bay, South Africa for more details).
  • January 2014: A tugboat and a coal barge sank in the Batanghari River in Jambi, central Sumatra, Indonesia. The accident occurred when the tugboat became unstable due to the strong river current, capsized, hit the barge and sand. The crew of two were missing.[74]
  • July 14, 2014: The side of a Japanese-owned coal ship was ripped open and will take two weeks to repair after striking rocks in the outer harbour of Prince Rupert in British Columbia. At the time of the accident the 228-metre Amakusa Island, which was loaded with 80,000 tonnes of coal, had a pilot on board and was being moved in good weather from a berth at the Ridley Terminal’s coal terminal to an anchorage.[75] (See The grounding of the Amakusa Island ship in Prince Rupert harbour, British Columbia, Canada for further details).
  • August 28, 2014: The Phu Cuong 0148, carrying 2,700 tonnes of coal sank offshore Vietnam's northern Hai Phong city approximately 90 kilometres east of the Hanoi. According to Vietnam's state-run news agency VNA the Phu Cuong 0148 ship sank five nautical miles southeast of Ha Mai island near Bach Long Vy Island in Hai Phong with six crew members onboard. It was reported that the ship sank in rough seas caused by a gale.[76] It was later reported that the ship sank at 3.40pm and that a rescue operation had been launched for the missing crew members.[77] The six crew members were later rescued.[78]
  • September 9, 2014: A near fully laden coal ship, the Ulusoy-12, was moored at the Barney Island Coal Terminal in Queensland Australia when one of its mooring lines broke and the ship pivoted across the shipping channel of Gladstone Harbour and grounded. The grounded ship was rescued by five tugboats. No damage to the ship or the environment was reported. After an inspection of the engine and steering the ship left the port.[79] [80]
  • September 20, 2014: The Paul R. Tregurtha, the largest ship operating on the Great Lakes, ran aground in front of the Bayfront Festival Park in Duluth Harbour, Minnesota, United States.[81] The ship reportedly grounded at approximately 3pm and was freed later that evening. Following the accident the ship was moved to the Seaway Port Terminal for a damage inspection by the U.S. Coast Guard. At the time of the accident the ship was loaded with 62,000 tonnes of coal. Eyewitnesses stated that the grounding occurred when the Paul R. Tregurtha sought to avoid a smaller vessel in the shipping lane.[82] (See The grounding of the Paul R. Tregurtha ship in Duluth Harbour, Minnesota, United States for further details).
  • July 27, 2015: In a monsoonal storm five Vietnamese-flagged coal carriers sank and another ran aground near South China's Qisha port in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. It was reported that 48 crew from the six vessels were rescued. Qisha is the main port for coal imports from Vietnam.[84]
  • October, 2015: A fully loaded coal barge sank in Passur near the Sundarbans.[38]
  • February, 2016: The Panamanian -registered New Mykonos rammed into a sandbar and got stuck off Faux Cap. After days of pounding by the sea, the boat broke in two and sank, with some coal spilling into the sea and some structure remaining visible.[39]
  • March 19, 2016: The Sea Horse, a large bulk cargo vessel carrying 1245 tonnes of coal, sank in the Shela River inside the Sundarbans World Heritage site in Bangladesh. In addition to the large amount of coal, the spill included hundreds of gallons of fuel oil and other toxic cantaminants[38]
  • January 13, 2017: MV Aij Gati, carrying more than 1,000 tonnes of coal, sank 10-15 kilometres from Fairboya and 100km from Mongla Port. The site of the sinking was reported as being only 22km from the Sundarbans, the world's largest mangrove forest. The ship's crew of 12 were rescued. "The ship sank after suffering a rupture to its bottom when loading coal at Fairboya,” said Golam Faruk, the ships owner.[85]

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Articles and resources

References

  1. "Total Coal Exports (Thousand Short Tons)," U.S. Energy Information Administration, accessed September 2014 (figures have been converted from short tons to metric tons or tonnes).
  2. Michael Cox, "Anger lingers over Kaitawa sinking", Waikata Times, October 24, 2010.
  3. "Coal ship which sank had patched hull", Observer Reporter, February 18, 1983.
  4. "Freak accident sinks coal barge", Observer Reporter, December 27, 1983.
  5. "Coal Carrier Sinks Off Sardinian Coast", Marine Link.com, October 4, 2000.
  6. "Accident Investigation: MV Christopher", Ministry of Communications and Works, Department of Merchant Shipping, Lemesos, approx 2003.
  7. Independent investigation into the grounding of the Panamanian registered bulk carrier Pasha Bulker on Nobbys Beach, Newcastle, New South Wales on 8 June 2007, Australian Transport Safety Bureau, May 23, 2008.
  8. "Shipwrecks Since 1833", Infoplease.
  9. "Damage Hawaii reef, pay $840,000: Cargo ship ran aground on reef off Oahu, harming coral", Seattle Times, November 25, 2014.
  10. Marine Safety Investigation Report - Preliminary, Australian Transport Safety Bureau, 3 May 2010
  11. Jackie Cowhig, Jonathan Saul, Henning Gloystein and Denise Luna, "Weather sinks Colombia coal barge, exports suffer", Reuters, December 17, 2010.
  12. US Coast Guard, "Coast Guard responds to barge aground in Trenton Channel, Detroit", News Release, December 24, 2010.
  13. US Coast Guard, "Barge no longer aground in Trenton Channel, Detroit", News Release, December 26, 2010.
  14. "Part of Mississippi River closed after barge sinks in north Louisiana", Nola.com, August 4, 2011.
  15. "Ship carrying 60,000 tons of coal sinks off Mumbai", Asia One News, August 5, 2011.
  16. "Coal Carrier Accident Stops Shipping for Three Hours on Yangtze River in Wuhan", NTDTV.com, September 27, 2011.
  17. "Barges Break Loose Overnight On Mon River: All bridges have now reopened", CBS, January 19, 2012.
  18. Casey Conley, "Runaway coal barge sinks after tow strikes Pittsburgh bridge in high wind, swift current", Professional Mariner, April 24, 2012.
  19. "Coal-laden Indian vessel sinks near Mongla Port", Financial Express, August 16, 2012.
  20. "1,000-foot coal freighter stuck in St. Marys River", The Detroit News, August 15, 2012.
  21. Casey Conley, "Largest laker runs aground bow-to-stern, blocking St. Marys River", November 8, 2012.
  22. "Four die, while 12 remain missing as cargo ship sinks near Turkey", RT, December 04, 2012.
  23. Gordon Hamilton and Tiffany Crawford, "Ship crashes into dock at Westshore Terminals, spilling coal into water", Vancouver Sun, December 9, 2012.
  24. Benjy Hansen-Bundy, "Caribbean coal spill coverup investigated", Colombia Reports, February 1, 2013.
  25. "1 dead, 14 missing in ship sinking off Pangasinan", Sun Star, February 17, 2013.
  26. Jen Baird, "Coal removed from barges that partially sank on Mississippi River", KFVS12, March 25, 2013.
  27. Lauren Rawlins, "Fears for habitat as ship left stranded", IOL News, August 20 2013.
  28. "Two missing after tugboat barge sink", Jakarta Post, January 22 2014.
  29. "Prince Rupert ship grounding highlights risk of oil spill, critics warn: Bulk carrier ripped hole in hull while moving to anchorage from terminal", Vancouver Sun, July 16, 2014.
  30. "Collier sinks offshore northern Vietnam, leaving 6 crew members missing", ShanghaiDaily.com, August 29,2014.
  31. "Breakfast @ Tuoi Tre News – August 31", Tuoitrenews.vn, August 31, 2014.
  32. "Large ship runs aground in Duluth Harbor", Kare11, September 20, 2014.
  33. "Paul R Tregertha Cleared After Running Aground", Fox 21, September 21, 2014.
  34. "Freighter runs aground at Grosse Ile free bridge", Detroit News, November 3, 2014.
  35. "Tug boats to rescue as ship breaks moorings", The Observer, September 10, 2014.
  36. Ebony Battersby, "Grounded coal ship paralyses harbour", The Observer, September 11, 2014.
  37. Angela Yu, "Five vessels sink, one runs aground in South China", IHS Maritime 360, July 29, 2015.
  38. 38.0 38.1 38.2 38.3 Tina Posterli, "Fully Loaded, Coal-Laden Vessel Sinks in the Sundarbans," Waterkeeper Alliance, March 21, 2016
  39. 39.0 39.1 Bob Burton, "Coal and coral shouldn't mix, but they do when ships sink," Waterkeeper Alliance, March 21, 2016
  40. Hedait Hossain Molla, "Coal-laden vessel sinks near Sundarbans", Dhaka Tribune, January 13, 2017.
  41. Michael Cox, "Anger lingers over Kaitawa sinking", Waikata Times, October 24, 2010.
  42. "Coal ship which sank had patched hull", Observer Reporter, February 18, 1983.
  43. "Freak accident sinks coal barge", Observer Reporter, December 27, 1983.
  44. "Coal Carrier Sinks Off Sardinian Coast", Marine Link.com, October 4, 2000.
  45. "Accident Investigation: MV Christopher", Ministry of Communications and Works, Department of Merchant Shipping, Lemesos, approx 2003.
  46. Ben Cubby and Edmund Tadros, "Ships ignored warning to leave", Sydney Morning Herald, June 9, 2007.
  47. "Salvage team boards beached ship", Sydney Morning Herald, June 9, 2007.
  48. "ATSB releases final Pasha Bulker report", Australian Transport Safety Bureau, May 23, 2008.
  49. Independent investigation into the grounding of the Panamanian registered bulk carrier Pasha Bulker on Nobbys Beach, Newcastle, New South Wales on 8 June 2007, Australian Transport Safety Bureau, May 23, 2008.
  50. "Shipwrecks Since 1833", Infoplease.
  51. "Damage Hawaii reef, pay $840,000: Cargo ship ran aground on reef off Oahu, harming coral", Seattle Times, November 25, 2014.
  52. 52.0 52.1 "Great Barrier Reef oil disaster fear from stricken ship", BBC News Online (4 April 2010). Retrieved on 4 April 2010. 
  53. Owens, Jared (5 April 2010). "Leaking ship's owners face $1m fine", The Australian. Retrieved on 4 April 2010. 
  54. "Stranded ship 'time bomb' to Great Barrier Reef," Reuters, April 5, 2010
  55. Marine Safety Investigation Report - Preliminary, Australian Transport Safety Bureau, 3 May 2010.
  56. Jackie Cowhig, Jonathan Saul, Henning Gloystein and Denise Luna, "Weather sinks Colombia coal barge, exports suffer", Reuters, December 17, 2010.
  57. US Coast Guard, "Coast Guard responds to barge aground in Trenton Channel, Detroit", News Release, December 24, 2010.
  58. US Coast Guard, "Barge no longer aground in Trenton Channel, Detroit", News Release, December 26, 2010.
  59. "Ship carrying coal destroys Philippine coral reef", San Diego Union-Tribune, May 12, 2011.
  60. "Part of Mississippi River closed after barge sinks in north Louisiana", Nola.com, August 4, 2011.
  61. "Ship carrying 60,000 tons of coal sinks off Mumbai", Asia One News, August 5, 2011.
  62. "Coal Carrier Accident Stops Shipping for Three Hours on Yangtze River in Wuhan", NTDTV.com, September 27, 2011.
  63. "Barges Break Loose Overnight On Mon River: All bridges have now reopened", CBS, January 19, 2012.
  64. Casey Conley, "Runaway coal barge sinks after tow strikes Pittsburgh bridge in high wind, swift current", Professional Mariner, April 24, 2012.
  65. "Coal-laden Indian vessel sinks near Mongla Port", Financial Express, August 16, 2012.
  66. "Four die, while 12 remain missing as cargo ship sinks near Turkey", RT, December 04, 2012.
  67. Gordon Hamilton and Tiffany Crawford, "Ship crashes into dock at Westshore Terminals, spilling coal into water", Vancouver Sun, December 9, 2012.
  68. Benjy Hansen-Bundy, "Caribbean coal spill coverup investigated", Colombia Reports, February 1, 2013.
  69. Drummond Company, "Mines:Colombia", Drummond Company website, accessed February 2013.
  70. "1 dead, 14 missing in ship sinking off Pangasinan", Sun Star, February 17, 2013.
  71. Jen Baird, "Coal removed from barges that partially sank on Mississippi River", KFVS12, March 25, 2013.
  72. Lauren Rawlins, "Fears for habitat as ship left stranded", IOL News, August 20 2013.
  73. "Capesize coal shipment set for China sinks off South Africa's Richards Bay", Platts, August 20, 2013.
  74. "Two missing after tugboat barge sink", Jakarta Post, January 2.2 2014.
  75. "Prince Rupert ship grounding highlights risk of oil spill, critics warn: Bulk carrier ripped hole in hull while moving to anchorage from terminal", Vancouver Sun, July 16, 2014.
  76. "Collier sinks offshore northern Vietnam, leaving 6 crew members missing", ShanghaiDaily.com, August 29,2014.
  77. "Six missing from cargo ship sunk off Hai Phong", VietnamNet, August 31, 2014.
  78. "Breakfast @ Tuoi Tre News – August 31", Tuoitrenews.vn, August 31, 2014.
  79. "Tug boats to rescue as ship breaks moorings", The Observer, September 10, 2014.
  80. Ebony Battersby, "Grounded coal ship paralyses harbour", The Observer, September 11, 2014.
  81. Billy Wagness, "Paul. R Tregurtha, largest in Great Lakes fleet, freed after running aground in Duluth Harbor", NNCNOW.com, September 20, 2014.
  82. "Large ship runs aground in Duluth Harbor", Kare11, September 20, 2014.
  83. "Freighter runs aground at Grosse Ile free bridge", Detroit News, November 3, 2014.
  84. Angela Yu, "Five vessels sink, one runs aground in South China", IHS Maritime 360, July 29, 2015.
  85. Hedait Hossain Molla, "Coal-laden vessel sinks near Sundarbans", Dhaka Tribune, January 13, 2017.

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Wikipedia also has an article on Coal transport accidents. This article may use content from the Wikipedia article under the terms of the GFDL.