Minocycline

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Minocycline is a tetracycline antibiotic, a type of drug that prevents the growth and spread of bacteria.[1] It is sold under the brand names Dynacin, Minocin, and Myrac.

Why It's Prescribed

According to the National Institutes of Health:[2] "Minocycline is used to treat bacterial infections including pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections; acne; and infections of skin, genital, and urinary systems. It can also be used to eliminate bacteria from your nose and throat that may cause meningitis (swelling of tissues around the brain) in others, even though you may not have an infection."

Labeled uses for minocycline include:[3] Acne Vulgaris, Actinomycosis, Acute Gonococcal Cervicitis, Acute Gonococcal Endometritis, Acute Gonococcal Urethritis, Acute Lower Genitourinary Gonorrhea, Acute Otitis Media Infection, Anthrax, Bartonellosis, Bronchitis, Brucellosis, Campylobacter Fetus Infection, Chancroid, Cholera, Fusospirochetal Pharyngitis, Genitourinary Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection, Gingivostomatitis, Gonococcal Pharyngitis, Granuloma Inguinale, Inclusion Conjunctivitis, Listeriosis, Lymphogranuloma Venereum, Meningococcus Carrier, Pharyngitis, Plague, Pneumonia, Psittacosis, Q Fever, Rectal Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection, Rectal Gonorrhea, Relapsing Fever, Rickettsialpox, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Sinusitis, Skin and Skin Structure Infection, Syphilis, Trachoma, Tularemia, Typhus Infections, Ureaplasma Urealyticum Infections, Urinary Tract Infections, Yaws

Additionally, it may be prescribed for the following unlabeled uses:[4] Biliary Tract Infection, Chlamydial Infections, Enterocolitis, Infectious Disease of Abdomen, Leprosy, Mycobacteriosis, Mycoplasmal Pneumonia, Nocardiosis, Ocular Rosacea, Rheumatoid Arthritis

Form, Route, and Dosage

Minocycline is available as a regular capsule, a pellet-filled capsule, and a tablet to take orally.[5] Minocycline is available in the strengths 50mg, 75mg, and 100mg.[6] Adults are not generally prescribed more than 200mg in a 24 hour period.

Risks

Side Effects

Sometimes patients taking minocycline experience side effects. These may include:[7]

  • itching of the rectum or vagina
  • diarrhea
  • dizziness or lightheadedness
  • furry darkening or black discoloration of the tongue
  • redness of the skin (sunburn)
  • changes in skin color
  • hearing loss or ringing in your ears
  • severe headache
  • blurred vision
  • skin rash
  • hives
  • difficulty breathing or swallowing
  • yellowing of the skin or eyes
  • itching
  • dark-colored urine
  • light-colored bowel movements
  • loss of appetite
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • stomach pain
  • extreme tiredness or weakness
  • confusion
  • joint stiffness or swelling
  • unusual bleeding or bruising
  • decreased urination
  • pain or discomfort in the mouth
  • throat sores
  • fever or chills

Overdoses

Patients who take too much minocycline may suffer an overdose. Symptoms of overdose include:[8]

  • Dizziness
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting

As a Pollutant

Because humans and animals often do not fully metabolize pharmaceuticals in their body, they can excrete drugs or their breakdown products, which may the enter the environment.[9]

In Sewage Sludge

Minocycline has been found in sewage sludge. In the Targeted National Sewage Sludge Survey, a 2009 test of 84 samples of sewage sludge from around the U.S., the EPA found minocycline in 32 samples (38%) in concentrations ranging from 351 to 8,650 parts per billion.[10] There are no federal regulations governing how much of this drug may be present in sewage sludge applied to land as fertilizer.

Articles and resources

Related SourceWatch articles

References

  1. Minocycline Oral: MedlinePlus Drug Information, Accessed September 2, 2010.
  2. Minocycline Oral: MedlinePlus Drug Information, Accessed September 2, 2010.
  3. Minocycline Oral: Dosage, Uses, and Warnings, Accessed September 2, 2010.
  4. Minocycline Oral: Dosage, Uses, and Warnings, Accessed September 2, 2010.
  5. Minocycline Oral: MedlinePlus Drug Information, Accessed September 2, 2010.
  6. Minocycline Oral: Dosage, Uses, and Warnings, Accessed September 2, 2010.
  7. Minocycline Oral: MedlinePlus Drug Information, Accessed September 2, 2010.
  8. Minocycline Oral: MedlinePlus Drug Information, Accessed September 2, 2010.
  9. O.A.H. Jones, N. Voulvoulis, and J.N. Lester, Human Pharmaceuticals in Wastewater Treatment Processes, Environmental Science and Technology, 2005.
  10. Targeted National Sewage Sludge Survey Report, US EPA website, Accessed August 28, 2010.

External resources

External articles