Globalization, according to one source, is defined politically and economically as "the process of denationalization of markets, politics and legal systems, i.e., the rise of the so-called global economy. The consequences of this political and economic restructuring on local economies, human welfare and environment are the subject of an open debate among international organizations, governmental institutions and the academic world."
Globalization removes control over local resources to remote insensitive trans-national corporations operating solely on an agenda of profits, underinformed of and with insufficient concern for local effects. It exemplifies the socialization of costs and privatization of profits. "Agricultural workers and their families are being poisoned, rural lands, forests, oceans and waters are devastated, biodiversity is being destroyed, and food is unfit for human consumption. With these words, 140 participants from 17 countries at the First Pesticide Action Network Asia and the Pacific Congress in Manila last week [April 2003] warned the world that industrial agriculture as conducted by transnational corporations is undermining the resources needed to sustain food production."
Another perspective equates globalization with the phenomenon of intercontinental contracting. Keith Porter writes: "People around the globe are more connected to each other than ever before. Information and money flow more quickly than ever. Goods and services produced in one part of the world are increasingly available in all parts of the world. International travel is more frequent. International communication is commonplace."
Porter adds: "While some people think of globalization as primarily a synonym for global business, it is much more than that. The same forces that allow businesses to operate as if national borders did not exist also allow social activists, labor organizers, journalists, academics, and many others to work on a global stage."
"Since the Seattle surprise of 1999, it has become standard procedure to erect a miniature police state around globalization summits, and it's hard not to read these rights-free zones as prefigurations of what full-blown corporate globalization might bring. After all, this form of globalization would essentially suspend local, regional, and national rights of self-determination over labor, environmental, and agricultural conditions in the name of the dubious benefits of the free market, benefits that would be enforced by unaccountable transnational authorities acting primarily to protect the rights of capital." --Rebecca Solnit, November 2003.
- 1 Promotion of Conflict
- 2 Globalization of North America
- 3 Globalization of Latin America
- 4 Globalization of the Middle East
- 5 Globalization of Iraq
- 6 Globalization of Africa
- 7 References
- 8 Related SourceWatch Resources
- 9 External links
- 10 Globalisation Articles
- 11 Further Reading (Books)
Promotion of Conflict
"Many of the armed conflicts of recent years have been sustained by economic activities of combatants with access to global markets. Today's warlords, make use of global financial and commodity markets to transform control over natural resources into war fighting capacity. Under the cover of armed conflict, legally or illegally produced commodities are traded on the legitimate, but highly unregulated, global markets to obtain financial resources, weapons and other materiel needed to sustain the war."
Globalization of North America
The activity of globalization can be applied to, or against, any country, including the U.S. March 28, 2003, Public Citizen:
- "Without approval by Michigan's legislature or Gov. Jennifer Granholm, the Bush administration plans to submit offers next week at the World Trade Organization (WTO) that could require the state to open public services to foreign, for-profit ownership and strictly curtail state regulation of banking, insurance, electricity, water systems, transportation, alcohol distribution and professional services including those provided by doctors, lawyers and accountants.
- "States would be required to conform their policies to global rules established as part of negotiations occurring under the WTO's General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). The threat to numerous state laws and policies was revealed only weeks ago when the European Union's (EU) demands of the U.S. were leaked from the secretive talks being held at the WTO's Geneva headquarters.
- "The leaked documents showed that a stunning scope of domestic policies that citizens expect to be set by their federal, state and local officials are poised to be eliminated in global negotiations pushed by giant, multinational service sector corporations such as Arthur Andersen, Halliburton Company and RWE/Thames Water. The policies include the privatization and deregulation of public energy and water utilities, postal services, higher education and alcohol distribution systems; the right of foreign firms to obtain U.S. government small business loans; and deregulation of private-sector industries such as insurance, banking, mutual funds and securities."
The website "Progress Report" observes in October 2003 that
- Mining corporations, many of which are not even American, receive huge welfare handouts from U.S. taxpayers in the form of access to public land at far less than the market value. Billions of dollars' worth of precious metals and other natural resources have been taken from public land, without any compensation to U.S. taxpayers.
- Now in a new development, instead of reforming this scandalous situation, the Bush administration is making it even worse by telling mining corporations they can pollute public lands without liability -- the full cost and liability hits the taxpayers instead.
- "Negotiated behind closed doors between the Bush administration and America's most toxic industry, this outrageous reversal directs the government to quit enforcing existing federal law," said Steve D'Esposito of Mineral Policy Center.
Globalization of Latin America
See article on Imperial terror in South America and links therefrom.
Globalization of the Middle East
Since U.S. and U.K. forces, the "coalition of the willing," began the campaign (Gulf War II) to oust Saddam Hussein and his "repressive" and "malignant" Iraqi leadership, other challenges for globalization may be on the horizon. Some are seeing Iraq's -- and the Middle East's -- future through other definitions like Americanization, or the Pax Americana doctrine.
An increasingly popular view is that Islamist activity is more anti-imperialist than religiously motivated. Olivier Roy of the Open Society Institute has broached the view that any model of an Islamic caliphate would almost certainly be defined by its resistance to economic globalization, rather than any religious ideal.
Globalization of Africa
- A dozen major international human rights and develoment groups are calling on the UN Security Council to press the United States and other western governments to launch immediate investigations into the involvement of multinational corporations based in their countries in profiteering from the war in the Democratic Republic of Congo. See war profiteering.
- The appeal--by such groups as Human Rights Watch (HRW), Friends of the Earth (FoE), Oxfam, and the International Human Rights Law Group--charges that multinational corporations (MNCs) have developed "elite networks" of key political, military, and business elites to plunder the Congo's natural resources during a five-year conflict that has caused the deaths of more than three million people--the highest civilian death toll of any war since World War II.
- The groups' appeal comes on the eve of the final report of a Panel of Experts ["Panel of Experts on the Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources and Other Forms of Wealth of the DRC"] that was established by the UN in 2000 to study the illegal exploitation of the DRC's abundant natural resources.
- Joseph E. Stiglitz. 2003, 2002. Globalization and its Discontents. New York: W.W. Norton. ISBN0393051242.
- Pax Americana, Africa
- Conflict Diamonds.
- "All the Presidents Men", March 2002, The devastating story of oil and banking in Angola's privatised war.
- "A Crude Awakening", December 1999, The Role of the Oil and Banking Industries in Angola's conflict.
- Background and Primary Source Documents on Economics of Armed Conflict.
- information on conflicts involving the exploitation of metals.
Related SourceWatch Resources
- American Turkish Council
- The Bolivian Water War
- Business Ethics Network
- Business Roundtable
- Corporate campaigns
- European Union
- free trade
- George Soros
- Global Compact
- Global Compact Corporate Partners
- Global insurgency for change
- Horizon Project
- Imperial terror in South America
- International Occupation Watch Center in Iraq
- oil industry
- population control
- Pax Americana
- Rothschild family
- Third world
- Timeline to global governance
- World Trade Organization
- The Globalization Web Site, Emory University. Includes Glossary, Theories, Issues, People, Debates, News, and Books.
- Globalization articles and links from the Global Policy Forum.
- Globalization and World Capitalism: A Debate -articles and links on globalization from US right-wing think tank the Cato Institute.
- The 2020 Global Landscape. Report of the National Intelligence Council's 2020 Project.
Resources critical of Globalisation
- The Tyranny of Free Trade Friends of the Earth International, Dec 2005.
- The World Trade Organisation: An Australian Guide, Global Trade Watch, Dec 2005.
- "The Scorecard on Globalization 1980-2000; Twenty Years of Diminished Progress,"Center for Economic and Policy Research, July 11, 2003.
- Rigged Rules & Double Standards, Oxfam International, 2002.
- "The New Rulers Of The World", a film by John Pilger.
"Pro" Globalisation Resources
- Globalisation Institute
- New facts on globalization, poverty and income distribution International Chamber of Commerce, 15 Jan 2003.
- Globalization, Growth and Poverty: Building an Inclusive World Economy, World Bank articles.
- IMF Staff, Globalization: Threat or Opportunity?, April 12, 2000 (Corrected January 2002).
- William Greider, The Establishment Rethinks Globalization, The Nation, April 19, 2007.