International Chinese coal projects

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Maheshkhali power station (Huadian)

On Dec. 4, 2011, a top China official said Bangladesh and China are set to sign a memorandum of understanding (MoU) to build a 1,320 megawatts (mw) coal-fired power plant in Chittagong under a joint venture. Chairman of the state-owned Bangladesh Power Development Board (BPDB) said the plant would be be built by the BPDB and China Huadian Hong Kong Company. Both the firms will decide on share of stakes of respective firms, timeframe and costs to implement the power plant under the joint venture. The power plant will run initially on imported coal, and will consume local coal to generate electricity in future subject to its availability.

BPDB earlier signed MoU with Indian National Thermal Power Company (NTPC) in September 2010 to build another 1,320MW power plant in Khulna, near Mongla Port. Although one year has already been passed there is no headway in implementation of the proposed joint venture power plant between the BPDB and NTPC.[1]

Kalapara power station

In March 2014 the state-owned North-West Power Generation Company and CMC -- China National Machinery Import & Export (Group) Corporation -- signed a Memorandum of Understanding to build a 1320 MW coal plant in Kalapara upazila of Patuakhali. The project will be located on the Rabnabad river bank near Paira Bandar. The estimated cost is $2 billion.[2] CMC, or China National Machinery Import & Export (Group) Corporation, was established in 1950, and in 1998 it became a subsidiary of China General Technology (Group) Holding Co. Ltd., a state-owned enterprise.[3] CMC has established overseas subsidiaries in Pakistan, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Turkey, and Luxembourg.[4] From the initial press announcements, it is not clear whether the joint venture building the Kalapara power station is between North-West Power Generation and CMC or between North-West Power Generation and CMC Bangladesh.

Chittagong power station (S Alam)

In December 2013, S Alam Group of Bangladesh signed an agreement in Dhaka with China's SEPCOIII Electric Power Construction Corporation to build a 1320 MW coal plant in Chittagong. The cost of the project was estimated at $1.8 billion. The Daily Star reported, "Officials said the new company would sign a separate agreement with state-run Power Development Board, which will mandate the joint venture to complete the construction work in 45 months."[5] It is not clear from the report whether the project will be a formal joint venture involving the Bangladesh Power Development Board, or whether the "joint venture" refers to the agreement signed between S Alam Group and SEPCOIII.

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Banovici power station

Banovici power station is a proposed 300-megawatt (MW) coal-fired power station in Banovici, Bosnia and Herzegovina. In February 2015 plant owner RMU Banovici selected four companies for the final round of bidding to finance and build the plant. Three of the bidders are Chinese companies Shanghai Electric Group Co., China Gezhouba Group and Dongfang Electric Corp., while the fourth one is a consortium led by Spain's Abengoa SA, which includes China's Harbin Electric. The best offer will be chosen by the end of 2015. The power plant is expected to be connected to the grid in 2020.[6][7]

Gacko Thermal Power Plant

Gacko Thermal Power Plant is a 300-megawatt (MW) coal-fired power station located near Gacko in Bosnia-Herzegovina. In May 2015 Bosnia's Serb Republic said it planned to sign a memorandum of understanding with China’s Dongfang Electric Corporation (DEC) for the construction of a second 350 MW unit at Gacko plant. Construction on the new unit is expected to begin in spring 2015.[8] Dongfang may secure 85% of the credit funds for the construction of the unit, possibly through a Chinese state-owned bank.[9]

Stanari Thermal Power Plant

Stanari Thermal Power Plant is a proposed 300 megawatt lignite-fired power station which is being promoted by EFT Rudnik i Termoelektrana Stanari d.o.o., a subsidiary of the UK-headquartered EFT Group. The power station would be located near the Stanari coal mine which is located approximately 70 kilometres to the east of Banja Luka in Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. In June 2012 EFT announced that the China Development Bank had agreed to provide a "EUR 350 million structured credit facility" to finance the construction of the proposed plant. In May 2010 EFT signed an Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) contract with China’s Dongfang Electric Corporation (DEC) to build the plant.[10]

Tuzla Thermal Power Plant

Tuzla Thermal Power Plant is a 715-megawatt (MW) coal-fired power station in Bosnia-Herzegovina. On August 30, 2014, China Gezhouba Group Co. (CGGC) signed the EPC contract to build a new 450MW unit at the power station.[11] The new unit is being financed by the Export-Import Bank of China[12]


Morupule B Power Station is a 600 MW expansion of the Morupule A Power Station near Palapye. Funding was provided by the World Bank and China Export & Credit Insurance Corporation.[13] The project is being constructed by China National Electric Equipment Corporation (CNEEC).[14]

The project was expected to be completed by October 2012, but by the end of 2013 only two units were in operation. BPC said the delay was due to mismanagement by the plant contractor CNEEC.[15] The other two units were completed in 2014, but three of the four units had broken down by October 2014, and Botswana was considering importing more energy from Eskom in South Africa until the units were repaired.[16]

Two units were running in June 2015, and the government was reportedly considering shutting the power station down.[17] By 2015 the project had cost Botswana tax payers an estimated 11 billion pula – making it the most expensive project ever undertaken in the country.[18]


President Medici (Candiota) power station is a 796 MW coal-fired power plant in Rio Grande do Sul. Unit 5 (350 MW) was completed in 2010 with US$430 million in funding from the China Development Bank, nearly doubling the plant's output.[19]


Dawei power station

The Dawei power station is a 4,000-6,000 megawatt power station which has been proposed for Dawei, Burma, to be operated by the Thai company, Italian-Thai Development Plc. It has been reported that firms from China, Korea and Japan are also interested. The output from the power station is notionally slated for a major industrial estate that includes a steel mill and petrochemical facilities.[20]

Kalewa power station

The Kalewa power station is a proposed 600 megawatt power station under construction by China Guodian Corporation and Tun Thwin Mining Co., Ltd. The power is proposed to be sold to the Monywa copper project which is operated by Chinese weapons manufacturer Norinco. The output from the Monywa mine will go to China, with a statement in 2009 on the Norinco website saying that the deal would “enhance the influence of our country in Myanmar [Burma]”. The article also noted that a similar agreement will also allow China’s Taiyuan Iron and Steel (Group) Company, the largest steel manufacturer in the world, to mine the Sagaing division for nickel.[21]

Tigyit power plant

The Tigyit power plant is the only operating coal-fired power station in Burma. A Pa’O Youth Organisation report states that "in September 2001 the regime’s Vice-Senior General Maung Aye arrived and chose the place for the power plant, instructing local military to confiscate over 100 acres of local farm lands. No compensation was provided. The CHMC of China and Eden Group of Myanmar built the plant under the supervision of the Energy Ministry. Construction began in September 2002 and was completed in April 2005."[22]


In September 2010, Chinese company Erdos Electrical Power & Metallurgical Co. announced plans to build a 700-megawatt coal power plant in the coastal province of Preah Sihanouk in Cambodia.[23] In 2010 Cambodia agreed with China to construct the $362 million, 270 MW Sihanoukville CID power station in Stoeng Hav Industrial Zone, Sihanoukville province. A joint venture between Cambodia International Development Group and unnamed local and Chinese firms was granted a 33-year concession to build and operate the plant, slated for completion by 2014.[24] However, as of 2014 there are now news of the power plant being constructed or operating, and it may have been cancelled.


Gething coal mine

In November 2011, the Canadian government announced a new funding deal among Chinese backers for the $860-million Gething coal mine, a 40-year metallurgical coal mine. Project proponent Canadian Kailuan Dehua (CKD) Mines said it will address both environmental issues and aboriginal concerns surrounding the coal mine in northeast British Columbia. West Moberly First Nation Chief Roland Willson said the Gething project is situated near Hudson's Hope, on top of an area of strong cultural significance. CKD's vice general manager Judy Matkaluk said the Prince Rupert Port is an important gateway for China and can handle additional coal capacity.[25]


The Ghana Coal power station is a proposed 1200-megawatt (MW) coal-fired power station in Ghana. In September 2014 it was reported that Ghana electric utility Volta River Authority (VRA) had signed a memorandum of understanding with China's Shenzhen Energy Group to develop the plant.[26]


CLP India

CLP India is a subsidiary of CLP Holdings, a company founded as China Light and Power Company Limited in Hong Kong. On its website the company states that the "CLP Group started its India innings by acquiring a stake in the 655 MW gas powered Gujarat Paguthan Energy Corporation (GPEC) in Bharuch, Gujarat in 2002. Since then, CLP India's portfolio has expanded to about 2,614 MW which include around 640MW of wind energy projects and a 1,320 MW coal fired power plant in Jhajjar, Haryana."[27] The Jhajjar (Mahatma Gandhi) power station is located in Haryana.[28]

In 2010 CLP India entered into a financing agreement with The Bank of Tokyo–Mitsubishi, UFJ Ltd., China Development Bank Corporation, The Export‐Import Bank of China, The Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Ltd., and Standard Chartered Bank for the power station. The consortium of five lenders provided approximately US$288 million in financing.[29] CLP India has also been reported to be bidding for a 4,000 MW project in Orissa.[30]

In January 2015 CLP Group said it planned to add about 2000 MW of coal-based power generation capacity to its existing gas-based plant, Paguthan power station, which was nearing the end of its power purchase agreement. The estimated cost is US$2 billion. It would be fueled by imported coal.[31]


Bhognipur power station is a proposed 1,320 MW coal-fired power station in Uttar Pradesh. Sponsor Lanco Group signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with China Development Bank (CDB) to raise loans for the project, as well as a 1320 MW expansion of Anpara power station (Lanco) in Uttar Pradesh.[32][33] In 2013 it was reported that Lanco Infratech was putting construction of the Bhognipur power station on hold, due to "the turbulent economic environment, volatile currency and shortage of resources."[34] In 2014 Lanco said it planned to sell its Anpara power station, making the 1320 MW expansion with CDB unlikely.[35]

China Development Bank also gave US$200 million Buyers’ Credit for units 3 & 4 (1320 MW) of Lanco Amarkantak Thermal Power Project, the 1320 MW Babandh power station, and the 1320 MW Vidarbha thermal power station being developed by Lanco Group.[36]

Infrastructure Leasing & Financial Services

Mota Layja power station is a proposed 4000 megawatt (MW) coal-fired power station in Gujarat. In May 2015 it was reported that project sponsor IL&FS was seeking up to US$1 billion of funding from the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC) to support infrastructure financing in India. IL&FS’ power generation arm IL&FS Energy Development Co Ltd (IEDCL) also signed an agreement with China’s Huaneng Group to jointly develop, implement and operate the 4000 MW coal project.[37]

Reliance Power

In October 2010 Reliance Power said it had placed an order for 42 supercritical units of 660 MW each with China's Shanghai Electric Group. The units are for Reliance projects throughout India, which are not specified. Reliance Power signed Memorandum of Understandings to cover the financing with Chinese banks including Bank of China, China Development Bank (CDB), the Export-Import Bank of China (C-EXIM) and Industrial and CommercialBank of China (ICBC). The MOUs provided for financing to cover Chinese exports up to US$12 billion.[38]

Sasan Ultra Mega Power Project

On June 29, 2011, Jotun India and Jotun China secured a contract for Reliance Power's Sasan Ultra Mega Power Project, a 6 x 660 MW plant in India. In China, 90,000 metric tons of turbine house steel structure will be coated with Jotun coatings, in addition to six sets of BTG (boiler, turbine and generators). In 2010, Jotun China Protective Management decided to set up a team to take care of international engineering companies and Chinese EPC companies active with cross border projects. With the help of Jotun's sister companies including Jotun Australia, Indonesia, Vietnam, India, Singapore and Philippines, U.A.E and Jotun Korea, a dozen cross border projects have been secured in the past years and supplied by Jotun China including: Australia Karara Mining project; Indonesia Tanjung Awar-Awar 2x350MW power plant project; Vietnam Ca Mau Fertilizer plant project; India Kamalaka 3x350MW power plant project; Philippines Mariveles 2x300 MW power plant project.[39]


Cuddalore SRM power station is a proposed 1980 MW coal-fired power station in Tamil Nadu. In December 2010 sponsor SRM Energy announced a Letter of Intent for an Engineering, Procurement and Construction contract with China Datang Technologies & Engineering (CDTE), a subsidiary of China Datang Corporation (CDC) for the supply of three 600MW thermal power units for the power station at a value of US$1.4 billion.[40]

Tiroda UMPP

Tiroda Thermal Power Project is a 3,300 MW coal plant in Maharashtra. Standard Chartered Bank, China Development Bank Corporation and Industrial and Commercial Bank of China gave US$480 million in syndicated secured financing to Adani Power Maharashtra toward the power station.[41]



Between 2000 and 2007, Indonesian coal deliveries to China increased by 157%. In August 2010, China's sovereign wealth fund, China Investment Corporation (CIC) announced that, in order to "secure more resources in Southeast Asia and benefit from increasing trade in the region" it would "plough" US$2 billion into coal, electricity and port projects in Indonesia. No time limit was given for fulfilling these objectives, but CIC said it was interested specifically in three Indonesian state firms: the coal mine company PT Tambang Batubara Bukit Asam; the state electricity company, PLN; and port operator, Pelindo.[42]

Power generation

  • Bangko Tengah (SS-8) power station , also known as South Sumatra 8 or Sumsel-8, is a proposed 1,200 megawatt (MW) coal-fired power station near the Tanjung Enim coal mine in South Sumatra Province. In December 2011, PT Bukit Asam Tbk (PTBA), a state-owned coal mining company, announced plans to build the first two 660-MW units of the Bangko Tengah mine-mouth coal plant with China Huadian Corporation; Bukit Asam has a 45% stake while China Huadian has 55%.[46][47] On March 27, 2015 Bukit Asam announced that it had finalised the terms for a $1.2 billion loan from the Export-Import Bank of China.[48] [49]
  • Celukan Bawang power station is a proposed 425 MW coal-fired power station in North Bali. In October 2010, the government of Indonesia signed a US$1.5 billion memorandum of understanding with two Chinese companies, China Huadian Engineering Corporation Ltd and China Huadian Development.[50] The project broke ground that same month.[51] The cost of the plant itself would be Rp. 7 trillion (US$761 million).[52]
  • Cilacap power station is a proposed 5,000 MW coal-fired power plant in Central Java Province by PT Jawa Energy, a private consortium of Chinese and Indonesian investors.[53][54]
  • Nagan Raya power station (also known as the Meulaboh power station) is a 220 MW coal-fired station in Aceh. The Export-Import Bank of China lent PT PLN US$124 million for the power station.[56]
  • Pacitan power station is a 630 MW coal-fired station in East Java Province. PLN received US$293 million loan from the Export-Import Bank of China to finance the plant.[57]
  • Pelabuhan Ratu power station is a 945 MW coal-fired station in West Java Province. The Export-Import Bank of China lent PT PLN US$481 million for the power station.[61]

China Huadian

In October 2004 the Vice-President of China Huadian Corporation (CHD) met with a senior official from the Chinese Embassy in Indonesia seeking support for its plans for greater involvement in the Indonesia market.[62] The following year CHD won a $US400 million contract for the construction of 2×300MW coal fired power plant project in West Java, Indonesia.[63] The project was to supply power to PT Pembangkitan Jawa-Bali (PT PJB), a government-owned utility commonly referred to as PT PJB. The consortium selected to build the project was PT. Indika Inti Energy[62], a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Indika Group.[64]

In March 2005 there was a further high level meeting between CHD officials and the head of the state-run electricity company, PT PLN.[65] The following month CHD signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the governor of South Sumatra, Mr.Syahrial Oesman, for the development of a 4X600MW mine mouth power station in South Sumatra.[66] A few months later the formal Memorandum of Agreement was signed with the Indonesian President, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono and Chinese vice premier Zeng Peiyan at a business luncheon. Signing the agreement were Mr. He Gong, the president of China Huadian Corporation, Mr. Eddie Widiono, the president director of Indonesian state-run electricity company PT PLN, Mr. Ismet Harmaini, president of Indonesian state-run coal company PTBA and Mr. Hendrik Tee, president of Indika. "This project is to be developed by 55% majority holding of China Huadian corporation," a CHD media release stated.[67] The project is the Banko Tengah power plant.[68] [69][70] However, an October 2010 JP Morgan research report referred to the project as having stalled.[71] The plant was proposed to be built adjoining the Banko Tengah mine.

In September, 2010, China Huadian Corporation (CHD) announced that it had embarked on a "going abroad" path by launching the 180 MW Asahan No 1 hydropower plant in North Sumatra, Indonesia.[72] CHD also established a branch in Indonesia in August 2010, which became the first foreign-funded company licensed to operate a power plant in Indonesia. CHD Power Plant Operation Co (PPOC) general manager Jin Yingjun said, "Through this project, we have developed a new model for running power stations overseas. We aim to build up our team through this project and then further press ahead overseas."[72][73] The company also stated in a media release that PPOC had "signed plant operation deals with Indonesia and Malaysia worth $200 million last year" and falgged that it was "currently seeking to build a thermal plant in Vietnam."[72]

CHD also stated that the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) had approved a plan of China Huadian Engineering Co, a CHD subsidiary, to build a 65 MW coal-fired power plant on Batam Island, Indonesia.[72]

As of early 2011, the following projects were in various stages of development by China Huadian Engineering in Indonesia:[74][75]

  • Lafarge, 33 MW coal-fired power plant, Aceh Besar, Sumatra - operating
  • Asahan, hydropower station, Sumatra - operating
  • Batam, hydropower station, Sumatra - under construction
  • Indorama, 60 MW coal-fired power plant, Java - construction completed


In November 2012 it was reported that Iran plans to develop its first coal power generation plant, Tabas_power_station, with the assistance of Chinese financial backing. The US$1 billion power station is planned for Tabas and would generate 650 MW of electricity when it becomes operational, four years after financing is secured. The project is likely to be kicked off by the end of Iran's Fifth Five-Year Economic Development Plan (2015).[76]


Goat Islands port project

According to reports in early 2014, China Harbour Engineering Company is seeking to build a coal plant in the Goat Islands of southern Jamaica to provide the power needed for a $1.5 billion transshipment port. The port is intended to attract deep-drafting ships expected to travel through the Panama Canal after the current canal expansion is completed. The company has applied for a license with Jamaica's environmental agency to begin geotechnical work in the Portland Bight area, the island's largest environmentally protected area.[77] Environmentalists have vigorously protested development of the Goat Islands, an area currently being considered by UNESCO as a Global Biosphere Reserve.[78]


Lamu Power Project is a proposed 1,000-megawatt (MW) coal-fired power station in Kenya. In September 2014 it was reported that a consortium headed by two Kenyan firms, Centum Investment and Gulf Energy, had won the contract to build the plant. The consortium would also include Chinese companies China Huadian Corporation Power Operation Company, Sichuan Electric Power Design and Consulting Company, and Sichuan No 3 Power Construction Company. The consortium would raise US$ 500 through equity financing and the remainder of the cost through debt.[79]


In 2014 the Parliament ratified an agreement with Export-Import Bank of China to finance replacing the existing Bishkek CHP power station facility with two 150 MW units. These units are referred to as Unit 12 and Unit 13. (The reason for the numbering is unclear, since the existing plant has 10 units.) The decision generated immediate criticism from a variety of political figures. Members of the Supervisory Board on transparency of fuel and energy complex initiative said that the Electric Stations Joint Special Committee violated the provisions of the law on public procurements by not following a procedure that allowed transparent evaluation of proposals from multiple bidders. Although the Chinese company TBEA was chosen to build the plant, critics said that China Machinery Engineering (CMEC) had actually submitted a lower offer. According to one media report, "There appeared to be a lot of rumors" that the Minister of Energy and Industry, had "private ties" with TBEA, including financial assistance in building an apartment house on the south Highway. Member of parliament Zamir Bekboyev said that the CMEC offer would have been US$30 million cheaper. According to another member of parliament, Kozhobek Ryspayev, MPs had been rushed through the decision with no time to look through documents, and were told that Export-Import Bank of China's role as financier of the project gave it control over the selection of the contractor. Electric Stations Director General Salaydin Avazov said, "If we had money for reconstruction, we would have held a tender. And since there is no money, we have agreed to the terms of Eximbank."[80]


The Malawi Power Station is a 1,000 MW coal fired plant proposed for Malawi, Africa. China Gezhouba Group plans to build the plant for US $500 million. The plant is scheduled to start in 2013 and be completed by 2015.[81]


In 2009, China Huadian Company signed plant operations deals with Indonesia and Malaysia valued at $200 million.[72][73]


Shivee Ovoo power station

Shivee Ovoo power station is a proposed 4,800 megawatt coal-fired power station at the Shivee Ovoo coal mine in Mongolia. In 2010 the Mongolian government proposed that the power station would would have approximately 4,000MW slated for export to China and 300MW to meet increasing domestic power demand.[82] A pre-feasibility study has been undertaken by the State Grid Corporation of China on the establishment of the mine-mouth power station and an electricity transmission line to China.[83] However, a 2014 list of potential public-private projects by the Government of Mongolia lists the proposed power station as only 270 MW.[84]


The Ezinmo power station is a proposed 1,000-megawatt (MW) coal-fired plant in Enugu, Nigeria. In July 2012 it was reported that Chinese firm Sepco III and its technical partner, Pacific Holding, planned to construct a 1,200 MW coal power plant in Benue State, at an estimated cost of US$4 billion.[85] In August 2013 it was reported that Nigeria’s federal government had signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Chinese energy company HTG-Pacific Energy for a US$3.7 billion, 1200 MW coal power project. The majority of the funds required to carry out the project will be sourced from foreign banks. The expectation is that the first power from the project can be generated onto the grid within the next four years. The power station is to be built near Pacific Energy's proposed Ezinmo coal mine extending from Benue to Enugu state.[86] In September 2014 it was announced the project would be 1,000 MW and located in Enugu.[87]


Thar coal block

Sino-Sindh Resources, a local subsidiary of Global Mining Company is investing in Pakistan's Thar Coal Block-1 for coal mining and power generation of 900 Mega Watt (MW), signing an MoU with the government of Sindh for the project in September 2011. The company plans to invest US $4.5 billion until 2016. Thar Coal field would also be declared a Special Economic Zone, and mining would be started in April, 2012.[88]

Block IV of Thar Coalfield has also been allocated to China's Three Gorges Corporation. The project's plans include development of an open pit mine of 20 million tons per year, and a mine-mouth power plant of 3,000MW in two phases. In CY10, China Three Gorges had 74 overseas projects in 28 countries in progress.[89]

The 660 MW Thar Engro power station will cost US$2.05 billion that is being undertaken by a Pakistani private company, Engro Powergen, with help of the Sindh provincial government and financing from Chinese banks.[90]

Gadani Power Park

In January and March 2014 China Gezhouba Group Company (GGGC) and Pakistan's Private Power and Infrastructure Board (PPIB) signed two Memorada of Understanding for setting up four 660 MW coal plants at the Gadani Power Park in Gadani, Balochistan.[91] Other power stations with Chinese involvement are the Port Qasim Burj power station and the Bin Qasim power station (Asiapak/Dongfang)

APTMA Pothohar power station

In June 2014, All Pakistan Textile Mills Association (APTMA) signed an agreement with China Machinery Engineering Company (CMEC) to built the 330 MW APTMA Pothohar power station. The power from the plant will supply electricity to textile mills that belong to APTMA, addressing the chronic power shortages facing the mills.[92] APTMA has also agreed to execute power purchase agreements with CMEC.[92]

Port Qasim SSRL power station

According to a July 2014 report, Dong Fang Electric Corporation (DEC) would set up two coal plants with a capacity of 220 MW each at Port Qasim, Karachi. Sindh Chief Minister Qaim Ali Shah welcomed DEC for signing the accord with J-Energy/SSRL and offered administrative support and attractive incentives. The project, known as Port Qasim SSRL power station, would be based on Thar coal, and would be targeted for completion by the end of 2017 or early 2018.[93]

Karachi power station

In April 2015 China Daily reported that that Sinohydro Resources, a subsidiary of Power Construction Corp. of China Ltd. (commonly known as Power China) had signed a joint venture with Al Malaki Group of Qatar to build the 1,320 MW Karachi power station. Under the agreement, the venture will be a 51:49 arrangement, with Sinohydro owning the larger share. The project will include the construction of a new port for coal delivery. The project is part of China's the "One Belt, One Road" initiatives.[92][94]

Faisalabad FIEDMC power station

The two 135 MW units of the Faisalabad FIEDMC power station being built by Shandong Ruyi Technology Group are intended to supply power for textile mills at Faisalabad Shandong Ruyi Textile Park, according to officials of Faisalabad Industrial Estate Development and Management Company (FIEDMC). The project is financed by the International Commerical Bank of China (ICBC). In October 2014, FIEDMC issued a letter to the Chinese group to start construction. As of November 3, 2014, the date of a press report on the project, infrastructure and construction machinery dispatched from China were expected to arrive in Faisalabad in a few days. Land for the plant had already been acquired, and construction had begun on boundary walls and buildings. FIEDMC CEO Aamir Saleemi sought to dispel rumors that China had lost interest in the investment, noting that expenditures and work was proceeding.[95]


Mariveles Power Plant is a 600 MW coal-fired power station on the Bataan Peninsula. The China Development Bank provided a US$493 million direct loan for the project, which the China Export and Credit Insurance Corporation guaranteed.[96]


Halanga Power Station

Halanga Power Station is a proposed 290-megawatt (MW) coal plant for Halanga Commune. In 2014 the Romanian government said China Power Energy would start building the unit that year, and would modernize the infrastructure of the lignite mine in the Husnicioara coalfield, which would supply coal for the power station.[97]

Rovinari Power Station

The Rovinari Power Station is a 1420 MW coal-fired power station in Gorj County, Romania. It was built in 1972 and is owned by SC Complexul Energetic Rovinari (owned in part by the Government of Romania). In May 2012 Rovinari selected China Huadian Engineering Co. Ltd to build a 500 megawatt (MW) coal-fired plant worth US$1.3 billion (1 billion euro) at the station.[98] In November 2014 Energy Complex Oltenia and China Huadian Engineering agreed to set up a joint venture for the construction, expected to begin in 2015 and take three to four years.[99]


Coal mining

In September 2010, it was announced that Russia had agreed to supply China with 475 million tonnes of coal over the next 25 years. In the deal, China will provide Russia with a $6 billion loan to finance the development of several coal projects into large-scale mines. The announcement followed a conference on energy cooperation in Blagoveshchensk, attended by Sergei Shmatko, Russia's energy minister, and Zhang Guobao, director of China's National Energy Administration. The Russian ministry stated: "Agreements have been reached on supplies of at least 15 million tonnes of [Russian] coal to China over the next five years and at least 20 million tonnes per year afterward. China's $6 billion loan will be secured by the Russian coal exports. The money will be used for everything from mine development and construction to the building and expansion of transportation infrastructure." Russia and China also agreed to conduct a preliminary feasibility study to set up another joint-venture for the development of a coal-to-liquids project in Russia.[100]

Sever Terminal

In February 2015 the Russian government said it was planning a 20 million tonne per annum (mtpa) coal facility to be called the Sever Terminal at Cape Petrovsky in Eastern Russia. Construction is planned to begin in the spring of 2015. The terminal is aimed at increasing coal supplies to the Asia-Pacific region. The terminal is estimated at $US340 million, which will be provided by the Russian federal budget and a further US$190 million by private investors, including the China Development Bank.[101]

Vera Port

In September 2014 Russia's Rostec and China-based Shenhua Energy said they planned to invest up to US$10 billion in a coal mine project of Russia's Ogodzhinsky coal deposit in the Amur region. Plans include construction of the 20-million tonne per annum Vera Port coal terminal.[102]

8,000 MW Erkovetskaya power station

In 2013, a framework agreement was signed between Inter RAO (owned by the Russian government) and State Grid Corporation of China (owned by the Chinese government) calling for Russia to hugely expand its power generation capacity in eastern Russia, for export to China.[103] In February 2014, the two companies proposed an 8,000 MW coal-fired power plant in Amur Province, to be powered by coal from the Erkovetsky lignite coal mine, less than 100 km from the border with China. The plant's capacity would be comparable to the total existing generation capacity of all of Russia's Far East. 2,000 km of transmission lines would need to be constructed to feed the plant's power into the Beijing grid.[103] Financing would likely come from China. China's Huaneng Group may also join the project.[104] In February 2015, SGCC stated that the plant's cost would be $15 billion. The Russian energy minister stated that the goal was to begin construction on the first stage of the plant by late 2015 or early 2016, and to finish the first stage by the end of 2019.[105] The size of individual stages of the plant is unclear.


TPP Kostolac Power Plant

In 2009, China president Hu Jintao and Serbia president Boris Tadic signed a 15-year agreement for China to invest $1.25 billion in Serbia’s infrastructure and energy through OPM Kostolac. The deal is the latest in a series of energy projects agreed over the past two years with China, along with Russia, when Serbia faced international isolation in the 1990s.

The initial plan was for a new power bloc to replace the two existing plants at the TPP Kostolac Power Plant, with respective installed capacity of 100 megawatts and 200 megawatts. The plants were to be decommissioned in 2017 and 2024 and replaced with the new one, fueled by the Drmno mine, which has around 350 million tons of remaining coal reserves, and the planned acquisition of the nearby Dubravica field, which contains around 400 million tons of recoverable coal reserves. The $700 million new power bloc was expected to produce 2.5 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity a year based on 7,000 operating hours, and would start generating power between 2014 and 2020.[106]

In October 2012 it was reported that Serbia plans to apply to a $10 billion fund that China earmarked for investments in 16 countries of central and eastern Europe. The loan would be for the $700 million project to add a new 350-megawatt plant in the Kostolac power generation complex and increase coal output at the Drmno mine from 9 to to 12 million tons a year. China Machinery Engineering is already involved in an upgrade of two plants at Kostolac B, supported by a $344 million 20-year loan from the Export-Import Bank of China, or Exim Bank.[107]

TPP Nikola Tesla Power Plant

On October 20, 2011, EPS said it had signed a preliminary deal with a Chinese consortium to jointly build a 744 megawatt coal-fired unit at an estimated cost of more than 2 billion euros ($2.7 billion). Under the deal, a consortium that includes China Environmental Energy Holdings and Shenzhen Energy, and EPS, will form a joint venture for the future project in the southwestern town of Obrenovac, part of its TPP Nikola Tesla Power Plant power complex. An upgrade of the Radeljevo coal mine will feed the plant.[108]

Kolubara B Power Station

On Sep. 6, 2013, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) confirmed that it is no longer interested in financing the Kolubara B Power Station, saying in an email that "We have also informed [Elektroprivreda Srbije] that, should the project become active again, it will have to be assessed against the [Bank's] new energy strategy which has far more stringent rules and would make our possible participation very difficult.” EBRD is under pressure to follow the example of the World Bank and the European Investment Bank in significantly limiting coal lending.[109]

In 2014 it was reported that the Chinese electrical power corporation Sinomach-CNEEC-CNEETC had opened an office in the Kolubara District of Serbia and was interested in "large energy projects in Serbia," including the power plant Kolubara B. The corporation said it was willing to invest EUR 1.3 billion in Kolubara B and the Radljevo coal mine, and that negotiations concerning Kolubara B are ongoing and the project could begin soon if there was successful cooperation between Serbia and China.[110]

South Africa

In November 2010, China's third-largest state-owned producer, Datong Coal Mine Group, said it is seeking coal mines in South Africa and other selected countries (Australia, Indonesia, and Russia), and plans to invest "tens of billions" in the new energy sector as part of its five-year development plan. President Wu Yongping of Datong ‒ the parent of the Shanghai-listed Datong Coal Industry Company Limited ‒ commented: “We are mainly looking at partnerships in these overseas ventures, but we won't rule out developing any mines on our own.”[111]

Sri Lanka

Lakvijaya Power Plant is a three-unit, 900 MW coal-fired power station in the Northwestern Province. The Export-Import Bank of China provided a US$450 million loan for unit 1 and US$891 for units 2-3.[112]


Kiwira coal mine

In June 2011, China Energy and Mines minister William Ngeleja said the country will invest $400 million in Tanzania’s Kiwira coal mine project estimated to generate 200 megawatts of electricity. The money comes under a soft loan arrangement. Five groups, including Tanzania's National Social Security Fund, applied to run the project, before the government accepted China’s offer.[113]

Mchuchuma Coal Mine and Mchuchuma power station

It was announced in September 2011 that China's Sichuan Hongda Co. Ltd. signed a $3 billion deal with Tanzania to mine coal and iron ore in Tanzania. The investment involves construction of the Mchuchuma Coal Mine and an accompanying 600-megawatt (MW) Mchuchuma power station. It is estimated that Mchuchuma coal deposits have more than 480 million tonnes of coal reserves.[114]

A new company, Tanzania China International Mineral Resources (TCMR), has been created to build the mines with the Chinese mining company taking a 80 per cent stake. The remainder of the company will be owned by Tanzania’s state-run National Development Corporation; although there are reports that NDC will be able to increase its stake to 49 per cent once Sichuan Hongda has recovered its original investment.[115]

Rukwa Coal To Power Project

The Mbeya power station, also known as the Rukwa Coal To Power Project, is a proposed 250-300 megawatt (MW) coal-fired power station in Tanzania. In April 2015 Kibo Mining said it had signed a development agreement for its Rukwa coal project with SEPCO of China. The Chinese firm would contribute up to US$3 million toward completing a feasibility study by October 2015, after which Kibo’s holding would be transferred into 85% ownership of a special purpose vehicle to develop the project.[116]


In April 2012, Hattat Holding AS, a Turkish group with interests in mining, auto, and energy, signed an agreement to build three power plants each with a capacity of 660 megawatts for $2 billion with China Power Investment Corporation (CPIZ) and Avic International. The agreement includes developing coal mines for $300 million in Bartin in northern Turkey where the plants will be located. The plants will be coal-fired.[117]

In May 2013 Hattat Holding and China-based Harbin Electric International signed a deal to build a 2,640 megawatts (MW), $2.4 billion coal plant in northwestern Turkey.[118]

İskenderun power station

In May 2012, Turkey's Yıldırım Group and China's Shenhua Group announced that they would be working together to build İskenderun power station, a $2 billion, 2,000-MW coal-fired power plant in Turkey's southern İskenderun province.[119][120]


In August 2011, President Viktor Yanukovych said Ukraine is seeking to get $1 billion of Chinese investments to develop its coal-mining sector. Agreements have been made with China to start a joint pilot project to upgrade the Melnykova mine in the Luhansk region in east Ukraine.[121]

United States

Sinopec and the Texas Clean Energy Project

In September 2012, Summit Power Group agreed to hire China’s Sinopec Group to construct the coal gasification Texas Clean Energy Project near Odessa. Once the contract is complete, the Export-Import Bank of China will lend Summit more than $1 billion for the project. Summit said it aims to finish financing the project by the end of 2012 and begin construction in early 2013.[122] The project has since faced delays. In June 2015 Summit Power Group said it expects to reach financial closure on the project by September 2015, and then start awarding contracts for construction. According to Summit, all of the debt financing will come from the the Export-Import Bank of China.[123]

Triple H Coal

On May 7, 2012, Guizhou Guochuang Energy Holding Group said it had raised 3.9 billion yuan ($616 million) in a private placement to be used mainly to acquire and develop Triple H Coal Company, making it the first Chinese company to invest in coal in America. Guochuang also said that a wholly owned subsidiary, Jiangsu Dipu Mining Investment Co., would acquire a full stake in Treasure Port International Limited (TPI) for up to $10 million. In March 2011, TPI had acquired Triple H Coal, mainly funded by borrowing from Questmark Mining Rights Investment Fund. Guochuang said Triple H Coal has five mining permit applications awaiting approval, and the company plans to build five new mines with 1 million tons of capacity each after the acquisition, which will have annual production capacity of 5 million tons of coking coal.

In the same May 2012 MarketWatch article, it was reported that American coal producers are hoping to attract Chinese investors to jointly develop coal mines in the United States. According to an unnamed executive at a large US coal company: "As far as I know, Datang, Huadian, Shenhua, China Coal, Qinfa Group and China Coal Solution are all attempting to acquire coal assets in the United States." A top Shenhua executive said that coal mines in Tennessee were attracting a lot of attention from investors.[124]


Novo-Angren power station is a 484 MW coal-fired power station in Dzhuma-Angren. A modernization project known as Novo-Angren is planned at the power station. In September 2012, plant owner Uzbekenergo signed a contract with China's Harbin Electric International Company for construction of a new 150 MW unit 9.[125] In 2014 five of the station's power-generating units were transferred to annual coal burning, financed in part by the Ex-Im Bank of China.[126]


Duyen Hai Power Generation Complex

Duyen Hai Power Generation Complex is a 4,305 MW coal-fired power plant complex under development in Trà Vinh province. The 1,245-MW Duyên Hải-1 is a project of Vietnam Electricity Group. The construction contractor is the Chinese company Dongfeng Group.[127]

The 1,200-MW Duyên Hải-2 is a project of the Malaysian company Teknik Janakuasa.[128] In April 2011, Janakuasa signed Chinese company Huadian Engineering to take the lead in construction.[129]

The 1,200-MW Duyên Hải-3 is a project of Electricity of Vietnam. In August 2011, the engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) contract for Units 1 & 2 was awarded to a consortium of Chinese companies: Chengda Engineering, Dongfang Electric Corporation, the Southwest Electric Power Design Institute (SWEPDI) (a subsidiary of the China Energy Engineering Group), and Zhejiang Electric Power Construction.[130][131]

In April 2013, construction began on a US$280 million coal seaport, the Duyen Hai coal port, for the power complex. The seaport is being built by China Communications Construction, and is expected to be completed in late 2015; it will be capable of handling 12 million tons of coal per year for consumption at the complex's three power plants.[132]

Hai Phong Thermal Power Station

Hai Phong Thermal Power Station s a 1,200 MW coal-fired power plant in Hải Phòng province. In July 2005, Japan's Marubeni Corporation and China's Dongfang Electric Corporation were awarded the construction contract for Hải Phòng 1.[133] In Nov. 2006, Hai Phong Thermal Power JSC signed a contract, again with Marubeni Corporation and Dongfang Electric Corporation, to build a second unit, Hải Phòng-2, at the same location.[134] Loans were provided by the Export-Import Bank of China and the Japan Bank for International Co-operation.[135]

Kien Luong 1 Thermal Power Plant

According to a September 2010 article in China Daily, the company "is currently seeking to build a thermal plant in Vietnam and they are conducting the negotiation with the relevant foreign parties."[72][73] The plant is the 1200MW Phase 1 of the Kien Luong 1 Thermal Power Plant proposed by the Tan Tao Energy Corporation (TEC) of the Tan Tao Group. The Saigon Times reports that the project is the first "BOO (build, own, operate) project in Vietnam, with total investment capital of about US$2 billion." The proposed total plant has been mooted as 4,400-5,200 MW.[136]

Mao Khe power station

Mao Khe power station is a 440 MW coal plant in Quảng Ninh province. BNP Paribas of France and Bank of China provided export credit agency worth US$275 million for the plant.[137]

Plant in southern Vietnam's Binh Thuan province

In September 2010, the National Development and Reform Commission, China's top economic planner, approved a plan by a consortium led by China Southern Power Grid Corp. to build a coal-fired power plant in southern Vietnam's Binh Thuan province. The plant will have two generators, each with an annual power generating capacity of 600 MW. The first generator is expected to come online in 2014. The $1.75 billion project will be China's largest investment in Vietnam and Chinese banks will provide funding.[138]

Uong Bi power station

Uong Bi power station is a 740 MW coal plant in Quảng Ninh province. In May 2008, sponsor EVN broke ground on the second unit of Uông Bí-2, upgraded to 330 MW, with China's Chengda Engineering serving as general contractor.[139][140]

Vinh Tan power station

The Vinh Tan power station is a proposed 5,600-megawatt (MW) coal power plant complex in Bình Thuận province, Vietnam. Project sponsors include China Southern Power Grid Company and China Power Investment Corporation. Financiers include the Export-Import Bank of China and the China Development Bank.

Vung Ang power station

Vung Ang power station is a 3,600 MW coal plant complex in Hà Tĩnh province. In August 2007, OneEnergy, a partnership of China's CLP Group and Japan's Mitsubishi Corporation, announced that it had signed a construction contract with Lilama to build the two-unit, 1,200-MW, US$1.2 billion Vũng Áng-2. The Vietnamese government approved the plant in March 2009.[141][142] After finalizing the plant's build-own-transfer (BOT) agreement at the end of 2014, the plant's owners were expected to begin construction in March 2015.[143]


Maamba power station

The Maamba power station is a planned 300- to 600-megawatt (MW) coal-fired power station for Maamba, Zambia. The station would be mine-mouth and fueled by low grade coal from Maamba Collieries Limited (MCL)'s Maamba mine. In 2011, MCL appointed SEPCO Electric Power Construction Corp. of China for implementation of the power project.[144] The estimated cost of the power station is US$828 million. The Bank of China and the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China will provide US$300 million of the total funding.[145]


The Collum Coal Mine is owned by China in the southern town of Sinazongwe in Zambia. Twelve workers were injured on October 15, 2010, when mainly Chinese managers fired randomly at workers protesting poor working conditions. Investment from China has been on the rise Zambia, with several copper and coal mines bought by Chinese firms.[146]

In August 2012 Zambian miners killed a Chinese manager during a protest. The miners were protesting a delay in wage increases.[147] On August 7, 2012 police charged a Zambia coal miner with murder in connection with the killing of a Chinese supervisor during a protest.[148]


Gwayi Mine power station

Gwayi Mine power station is a proposed 600-megawatt (MW) coal-fired power station in Zimbabwe. China Africa Sunlight Energy, a 50/50 joint venture between Zimbabwe’s Old Stone Investments and Shandong Taishan Sunlight of China, is planning a coal mine and power station that would be the first phase of a US$2.1 billion project that would eventually include a 2,200 megawatt thermal power station, a gas extraction plant, and a coal brick factory, among others. The projects are being funded by the China Exim Bank.[149]

Gwayi power station (Shanghai)

Gwayi power station (Shanghai) is a proposed 1,200-megawatt (MW) coal-fired power station in Gwayi, Zimbabwe. It is sponsored by Shanghai Electric Group, Shenergy Co Limited, and Nan Jiang Group.[150]

Hwange power station

Hwange power station is the biggest power plant in Zimbabwe with an installed capacity of 920 megawatts (MW). In September 2014 Zimbabwe Power Company announced it had finalized negotiations with Chinese contractor Sino Hydro Corporation for a 600 MW expansion of Hwange Power Station.[151] The total cost for the project is estimated at US$1.4 billion. The China Export Import Bank (Eximbank) is expected to bankroll the project at nearly US$1.2 billion, while the Zimbabwe Power Company (ZPC) will fund the remaining $0.2 billion.[152]

Hwange Makomo power station

Hwange Makomo power station is a proposed 600-megawatt (MW) power station in Zimbabwe. Makomo Resources is a coal mining company in the Bulawayo Mining District of Zimbabwe. In July 2014 the company said it plans to spend US$1.5 billion on a 600-megawatt power plant in Hwange. Construction was planned to start in 2018. Makomo would finance the plant together with Chinese investors.[153]

Lusulu power station

Lusulu power station is a proposed coal-fired power station in Zimbabwe, which would be fueled by the nearby Lusulu coal field. In July 2015 Lusulu Power contracted China State Construction Engineering Corporation (CSCEC) to construct a 600-MW coal-fired power plant, a first phase that is eventually planned to reach 2,000 MW. Construction of phase one is planned to begin in early 2016, at a cost of US$1.1 billion. Commissioning is planned for 2019, and would include construction of roads, transmission lines and related infrastructure.[154]

Zimbabwe power station

China's Guangdong Bureau of Coal Geology plans to invest $3.5 billion to build a 1,200 megawatt thermal power plant in Zimbabwe, according to September 2012 media reports. The company said its proposed budget "is about $3.5 billion for a 120 million watt plant." In July 2012, Energy Minister Elton Mangoma told parliament that China Railway International, a subsidiary of China Railway Group and Zimbabwe's state power utility ZESA were planning to jointly run a coal mine that would supply a proposed 1,000 MW thermal power station.[155] As of 2015 there are no reports that the project has moved forward. Plans involving CNACG were likely abandoned. However, the plans may have been revived with different sponsors. In July 2014 a memorandum of understanding was signed between a joint venture led by Shanghai Electric Group and the Zimbabwe government for a 1,200 MW power station and mine in the country's western coal mining region. The joint venture also includes Southern Africa Shanghai Energiser Company (SASEC) and Chinese firms Shenergy and Nan Jiang Group. SASEC aims to sell the plant’s power to state-owned Zimbabwe Power Company, as well as exporting to the region.[156]

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