MON 04032

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MON 04032 (also known as Glyphosate Tolerant Soybean line 40-3-2) is a variety of genetically engineered soybeans made by Monsanto that has been sold under the brand name Roundup Ready Soybeans (RR soybeans) since 1996. They are genetically engineered soybeans that have had their DNA altered to allow them to withstand the herbicide glyphosate (the active ingredient in Monsanto's herbicide Roundup). When planting RR soybeans, a farmer can spray the entire crop with glyphosate, killing only the weeds and leaving the soybeans alive. However, one concern with the heavy use of glyphosate on Roundup Ready Crops is that it will lead to the development of glyphosate resistant weeds (sometimes referred to as "superweeds").[1]

Scientific Description

"GTS line 40-3-2 is described by Monsanto as soybeans containing a Roundup Ready gene, and any progeny derived from crosses between GTS line 40-3-2 and traditional soybean varieties. The Roundup Ready gene contained in GTS line 40-3-2- is a single insert of DNA comprised of the enhanced 35S promoter derived from cauliflower mosaic virus, the chloroplast transit peptide coding sequence from Petunia hybrida fused to the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene derived from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4, and the nopaline synthase 3' terminator from A. tumefaciens. Glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup herbicide, controls weeds due to the inhibition of the enzyme EPSPS. GTS line 40-3-2 soybeans express an EPSPS enzyme tolerant to glyphosate, thereby confering tolerance to Roundup herbicide."[2]

Impact of MON 04032

See the "Impacts" sections of the articles on Roundup Ready Soybeans and Roundup Ready Crops.

History

For more detailed information, see the article on History of Roundup Ready Soybeans.

1980s:

1990s:

  • 1992: Monsanto licenses their Roundup Ready soybean trait to Pioneer.
  • December 6, 1993, the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) published a notice in the Federal Register announcing that it had received a petition from Monsanto to deregulate (legalize) its Roundup Ready soybean variety MON 04032.
  • May 18, 1994: U.S. deregulates MON 04032.[3]
  • April 9, 1996: U.S. deregulates MON 04032.[4]
  • 1996: Both Asgrow and Pioneer Hi-Bred International begin selling soybeans with Monsanto's MON 04032 trait under the brand name "Roundup Ready."
  • April 3, 1996: The EU announces it will allow imports of MON 04032.[5]

2000s:

  • 2000: The first glyphosate resistant horseweed (Conyza canadensis) in the U.S. is discovered. They are found in the U.S. in soybeans.[6]
  • 2004: The first glyphosate resistant Giant Ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) and Common Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) in the U.S. is discovered. They are found in the U.S. in soybeans.[7]
  • 2005: The first glyphosate resistant Palmer Amaranth and Common Waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus (syn. rudis)) in the U.S. is discovered. They are found in soybeans and cotton.[8][9]
  • 2007: The first glyphosate resistant Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense) in the U.S. is discovered. They are found in the U.S. in soybeans.[10]
  • June 27, 2007: Canada deregulates a new RR soybean variety from Monsanto, MON 89788.
  • July 23, 2007: U.S. deregulates MON 89788.
  • 2008: Monsanto introduces MON 89788 under the brand name "Roundup Ready 2 Yield®," marketing them as "the second generation of the popular Roundup Ready® technology farmers have used since 1996."[11]

Articles and resources

Related SourceWatch articles

References

  1. William Neuman and Andrew Pollack, "Farmers Cope With Roundup-Resistant Weeds," New York Times, May 3, 2010, Accessed February 18, 2011.
  2. Federal Register, Vol. 59, No. 99, May 24, 1994.
  3. Federal Register, Vol. 59, No. 99, May 24, 1994.
  4. Novel Food Decisions - Approved Products, Health Canada, Accessed August 17, 2012.
  5. Daniel Charles, Lords of the Harvest: Biotech, Big Money, and the Future of Food, p. 163-164.
  6. Herbicide Resistant Weeds: Horseweed, Accessed August 17, 2012.
  7. Herbicide Resistant Weeds: Giant Ragweed, Accessed August 17, 2012.
  8. Herbicide Resistant Weeds: Palmer Amaranth, Accessed August 17, 2012.
  9. Herbicide Resistant Weeds: Common Waterhemp, Accessed August 17, 2012.
  10. Herbicide Resistant Weeds: Palmer Amaranth, Accessed August 17, 2012.
  11. Monsanto Company History, Accessed August 14, 2012.

External resources

External articles