MON 1445 is a variety of Roundup Ready cotton made by Monsanto and sold under the brand name "Roundup Ready® Cotton." It was deregulated in the U.S. in 1995 and in Canada in 1996, and it was first sold commercially in 1997. In 2010, Monsanto brought it under its larger umbrella "Genuity" brand, rebranding it as "Genuity™ Roundup Ready® Cotton." MON 1445 is genetically engineered to survive being sprayed with glyphosate, the active ingredient in Monsanto's herbicide Roundup. Farmers are instructed to spray their entire fields of cotton with Roundup, killing the weeds and leaving the crop alive. Roundup Ready crops and genetically modified organisms are controversial around the world.
1995: Deregulation in the U.S.
On February 14, 1995, Monsanto submitted a petition to the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service for the deregulation of its cotton varieties MON 1445 and 1698. On March 30, 1995, APHIS published a notice in the Federal Register announcing that the Monsanto petition and was available for public review and soliciting public comments, due on or before May 30, 1995. The USDA conducted an environmental assessment (EA) under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and issued a "finding of no significant impact" (FONSI). Both MON 1445 and MON 1698 were deregulated on July 11, 1995.
At the time of deregulation, APHIS wrote in the Federal Register:
- "Cotton lines 1445 and 1698 contain the gene for CP4 EPSPS (5-enolpyruvulshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) isolated from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4, which encodes an enzyme conferring tolerance to glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup herbicide. The subject cotton lines also contain the nptII gene, which encodes the selectable marker neomycin phosphotransferase II. Cotton lines 1445 and 1698 were produced through the use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation."
1996: Deregulation in Canada
MON 1445 was deregulated in Canada on December 19, 1996.
In 1997, Monsanto introduced MON 1445, branding it "Roundup Ready® Cotton." In 2010, it included MON 1445 in a rebranding effort, bringing all of its products under the Genuity brand umbrella. MON 1445 now sells as "Genuity™ Roundup Ready® Cotton."
Articles and resources
Related SourceWatch articles
- Roundup Ready Cotton
- Roundup Ready Crops
- Herbicide Tolerant Crops
- Genetically Modified Organisms
- Glyphosate Resistant Weeds
- GMO Policies by Country
- Federal Register, Vol. 60, No. 141, July 24, 1995.
- Novel Food Decisions - Approved Products, Health Canada, Accessed August 15, 2012.
- Product Safety Summaries, Accessed August 15, 2012.
- GM Crop Database, Center for Environmental Risk Assessment
- Overview of GMO Events Commercially Available and Regulatory Status
- Novel Food Decisions - Approved Products, Health Canada.