Northern Fowl Mite

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Northern Fowl Mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum ) is "the most economically important ectoparasite of commercial poultry in the United States."[1]

Impact of Temperature and Humidity

A study examining the survival of northern fowl mite adults and protonymphs away from their hosts (chickens) at various temperatures and humidities found that "There was a trend toward longer survival times at lower temperatures and higher relative humidity." Maximum survival times for adult mites ranged from 35 days at 15C (59F) and 85% RH (relative humidity) to 7 days at 33C (91.4F) and 31% RH. "Trends in main effects of temperature and humidity for protonymphs were similar to those seen in adults, except that protonymphs survived about twice as long as adults at the same temperature or humidity."[1] Maximum survival times were 22-29 days at 15C, 14-28 days at 21C (69.8F), 8-28 days at 27C (80.6F), and 7-12 d at 33C.


Controlling Mites

Fungi: One study found that the fungus Beauveria bassiana could control mites.[2]

Dustbathing: One study compared the effectiveness of dustbathing in three different materials: a 50/50 mixture of sand and diatomaceous earth, a 50/50 mixture of sand and kaolin, and and a 75/25 mixture of sand and sulphur (90% wettable sulphur, Yellow Jacket® Georgia Gulf Sulfur Corp., Valdosta, GA, U.S.A.).[3] All three materials significantly reduced mites on the birds who dustbathed, but the sulphur was the most effective. "Dustbathing in sulphur was 100% effective in reducing mites to low levels... after 1 week of access, and all visible mites were eliminated in a 2–4-week period... Mites did not recover from sulphur dustbox treatments up to 6 weeks after dustbox removal."

Articles and resources

Related SourceWatch articles

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Brian L. Chen and Bradley A. Mullens, "Temperature and Humidity Effects on Off-Host Survival of the Northern Fowl Mite (Acari: Macronyssidae) and the Chicken Body Louse (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae)," Journal of Economic Entomology, 101(2):637-646. 2008.
  2. Matthew SW Rassette, Elizabeth I Pierpont, Tina Wahl, and Mark Berres, "Use of Beauveria bassiana to Control Northern Fowl Mites (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) on Roosters in an Agricultural Research Facility," Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, Vol 50, No 6 November 2011 Pages 910–915.
  3. C.D. Martin and B.A. Mullens, "Housing and dustbathing effects on northern fowl mites (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) and chicken body lice (Menacanthus stramineus) on hens," Medical and Veterinary Entomology (2012), doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2915.2011.00997.x.

External resources

External articles

  • Soares NM, Tucci EC, Guastalli EA, Yajima H., "Control of Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago, 1877) (Acari: Macronyssidae) infestation in commercial laying hens by using Azadirachta indica extract," Rev Bras Parasitol Vet. 2008, Oct-Dec;17(4):175-8.
  • Brian L. Chen and Bradley A. Mullens, "Temperature and Humidity Effects on Off-Host Survival of the Northern Fowl Mite (Acari: Macronyssidae) and the Chicken Body Louse (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae)," Journal of Economic Entomology, 101(2):637-646. 2008.
  • Birrenkott GP, Brockenfelt GE, Greer JA, Owens MD (2000) Topical application of garlic reduces northern fowl mite infestation in laying hens. Poult Sci 79:1575–1577
  • Mullens, B.A., Kuney, D.R., Hinkle, N.C. & Szijj, C.E. (2004) Producer attitudes and control practices for northern fowl mites in southern California. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 13, 488–492.
  • Mullens, B.A., Velten, R.K., Hinkle, N.C., Kuney, D.R. & Szijj, C.E. (2004) Acaricide resistance in northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) populations on caged layer operations in southern California. Poultry Science, 83, 365–374.
  • Mullens, B.A., Hinkle, N.C. & Szijj, C.E. (2000) Monitoring northern fowl mites (Acari: Macronyssidae) in caged laying hens: feasibility of an egg-based sampling system. Journal of Economic Entomology, 93, 1045–1054.