Romania and coal

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The U.S. Geological Service reports that in 2007 coal mining in Romania dropped substantially as a result of the need to withdraw subsidies in order to comply with European Union guidelines.

According to the 2012 BP Statistical Energy Survey, Romania had 2011 coal reserves of 291 million tonnes, equivalent to 8 years of current production. More than 90 percent of Romanian coal reserves are located in the mining basins of the Oltenia Region.[1]

Coal accounts for 29% of Romanian energy production. Romania had 2011 coal consumption of 7.07 million tonnes oil equivalent, or 0.18% of the world total.[1]

Coal mining

According to the 2012 BP Statistical Energy Survey, Romania had 2011 coal production of 35.49 million tonnes, 0.16% of the world total.[1]

The British Geological survey states that 28.7 million tonnes of lignite coal and over 62 thousand tonnes of lignite coal were extracted in 2010.[2]

The USGS estimated in 2009 that Romania mined approximately 2.5 million tonnes of anthracite and 35 million tonnes of lignite.[3]

The main coal mining operations were:

  • the mining of approximately 10.4 million tonnes of bituminous coal from the Valea Jiului Mining Complex, near Hunedoara by Compania Nationala a Huilei-Petrosani;
  • the mining of approximately 20.3 million tonnes of lignite from the Jiu Valley coal mine in Oltenia County, north of Craiova; and
  • the mining of approximately 8.7 million tonnes of lignite from a mine about 50 kilometers north of Bucharest by Societatea National a Carbunelui-Ploiesti.[3]

Following Council Decision 2010/787/EU on state aid, three hard coal extraction units from Jiu Valley (Petrila, Uricani, and Paroseni) must be closed by 2018.[4]

Coal reserves

According to Euracoal, Romania's known hard coal resources are estimated at 650 million tonnes, of which 252.5 million tonnes are commercially exploitable within the currently leased perimeters. Lignite reserves are estimated at 1,490 million tonnes; 95% of lignite deposits are situated in the Oltenia mining basin, mostly in opencast mines. The remaining lignite deposits are said to have low economic potential and is therefore why the extraction in most other areas has stopped.[5]

Coal imports

The British Geological survey states that Romania imported just over one million tonnes of coal in 2010.[6]

Power generation

Romania's total installed generation capacity is 15,300 MW; coal-fired power plants have a share of 38.5%, or 5,918 MW. The main consumers of hard coal are the thermal power plants at Paroseni (3 x 50 MW) and Mintia (6 x 210 MW). The main consumers of the lignite coal are the thermal power plants Turceni (2,640 MW), Rovinari (1,720 MW), and Mintia-Deva (1,260 MW).[7]

Proposed Coal-Fired Power Stations

  • The Braila Power Station Expansion is a proposal by the state-owned Romanian company Termoelectrica and a consortium comprising E.ON Kraftwerke and Enel for "for the development of the Braila power plant project, for a new 800 MW coal-fired production capacity." The three companies announced in June 2008 that they had signed a Memorandum of Understanding relating to the project. The consortium states that "the project will also utilize the existing assets from the power plant currently in operation ... Based on the results of the feasibility study, expected by the end of 2008, the parties will decide whether or not to implement the power plant project." The media release also states that "the plant will be prepared for CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) -technology."[8]
  • The Craiova II Power Station is a 300 MW thermal power station located in Craiova, Romania, owned by Termoelectrica's Sc Electrocentrale Bucuresti. It was built in 1987 and is fueled by lignite coal and natural gas.[9] There are plans to add another coal plant of 150 MW at the station, which will result in a total power generating capacity of 450 MW at a cost of US$ 225 million.[10]
  • The Doicesti Power Station is a 320 MW power station in Doiceşti, Romania, owned by Termoelectrica. In 2011 Termoelectrica and China Huadian Engineering Co Ltd said they had agreed to build two new 250 MW coal plants at the Doicesti station, equipped with an installation for gas desulphurisation and capture, and transport and storage of slag and ash. The Chinese government is considering investing EUR700 million in the project.[11]
  • The Galati Power Station is a proposed 900 MW coal-fired station by Enel in the Free Economic Area of Galati, Romania. The investment is expected to reach almost EUR 1.3 billion. The prefecture of Galati city approved the local urban plan (PUZ) regarding the building of the station in September 2011. Building works for the plant are expected to commence at the end of 2012 and finalized three to four years later.[12]
  • The Paroseni Power Station is a 300 megawatt (MW) coal-fired power station in Hunedoara, Romania. It was built in 1964 and is owned by Termoelectrica.[13] On September 30, 2011, the Romanian government applied to the EU Emissions Trading System for allocation of approximately 75 million tonnes of carbon allowances free of charge in the period 2013-2019. The application included construction of four new coal-fired power plants with a total capacity of 2,000 MW (CE Rovinari, SE Islanita, SE Paroseni, and Braila Power). The new Paroseni plant would be 200 MW.[14]
  • The Rovinari Power Station is a 1420 MW coal-fired power station in Gorj County, Romania. It was built in 1972 and is owned by SC Complexul Energetic Rovinari (owned in part by the Government of Romania). In May 2012 Rovinari selected China Huadian Engineering Co. Ltd to build a 500 megawatt (MW) coal-fired plant worth US$1.3 billion (1 billion euro) at the station. Rovinari and China Huadian plan to set up an independent power producer (IPP), which will implement the project. Rovinari plans to replace two 200 MW energy blocks at the station that are currently out of use.[15]

Coal plants slated for closure

The following coal plants in Romania of 50MW or more have decided to opt-out of the EU Large Combusion Directive, meaning they must close down when their max 20,000 hours running time since January 2008 expires or at the end of 2015:[16]

  • S.C.TERMOELECTRICA S.A - SE BORZESTI
  • S.C. TERMON S.R.L. ONESTI
  • S.C.TERMICA S.A.Suceava No. 2 - 4
  • SC CET SA BRAILA NR.4
  • SC ELCEN Bucuresti SE Palas nr. 6 and 8
  • S.C. ENET S.A. NR. 4
  • Termoelectrica SA Buc. SE Doicesti (Gr. Energetic nr.8)
  • S.C.PETROTEL-LUKOIL S.A NR.3 (CT)
  • S.C. Complexul Energetic Craiova S.E. Craiova II -IMA 2
  • S.C. Energetic Craiova S.E. Craiova II - IMA 3 and 4
  • SC Complexul Turceni SA nr. 1 and 4
  • RAAN - Suc. ROMAG TERMO, No. 1
  • TERMOELECTRICA SA Paroseni IMA Nr. 1
  • Electrocentrale Deva S.A IMA 1
  • CET Arad No. 2, 5, 6, 7, and 10
  • ELECTRICA ZALAU S.A. IMA Nr.3
  • CET Brasov Nr.1
  • SC ELCEN Bucuresti SE Mures No. 2 and 3
  • SC ELCEN Bucuresti Grozavesti Nr. 2 - 7
  • SC ELCEN Vest Nr. 2
  • SC ELCEN Bucuresti Vest Nr.3 - 6
  • SC ELCEN Bucuresti Titan Nr. 1 and 2

Articles and Resources

Sources

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 "Coal Mining in Romania - Overview," MBendi, accessed Oct. 2012.
  2. "European Mineral Statistics: 2006-2010," British Geological Survey, 2012.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Mark Brininstool, "The Mineral Industry of Romania", U.S. Geological Service, September 2009.
  4. "Romania," Eurocoal, accessed Nov. 2012.
  5. "Romania," Eurocoal, accessed Nov. 2012.
  6. "European Mineral Statistics: 2006-2010," British Geological Survey, 2012.
  7. "Romania," Eurocoal, accessed Nov. 2012.
  8. Enel, "Termoelelctrica, E.ON and Enel Sign Agreement for Coal Fired Power Plant in Romania", Media Release, June 18, 2008.
  9. Cele mai mari termocentrale din Romania
  10. CE Craiova vrea o noua termocentrala
  11. "China, interested in investing in thermal power plant at Doicesti," Romania Business News, May 12, 2012.
  12. "Enel to build a EUR 1.2 bln thermal power plant in Galati," Business Review, Sep. 27, 2011.
  13. "Coal-Fired Plants Financed by International Public Investment Institutions Since 1994", Appendix to Foreclosing the Future: Coal, Climate and International Public Finance: Investment in coal-fired power plants hinders the fight against global warming, Environmental Defense, April 2009.
  14. "The Article 10C Application of Romania, Bankwatch, Feb. 21, 2012.
  15. "Romania's Rovinari Picks Chinese Co to Build 1.0 Bln Euro Power Plant," Power Market, May 10, 2012.
  16. "Opted Out plants 1 January 2012", European Environment Agency, October 2012.

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