Sudan, which is located to the south of Egypt and touching the Red Sea, is Africa's largest country in land area. "Since independence from Britain in 1956, a north-south war has dominated Sudan's history, pitting Arab Muslims in the northern desert against black Christians and animists in the southern wetlands. Muslim Arabs control the government in Khartoum, but are only about 39 percent of the population. Blacks, or Africans, make up 52 percent of Sudanese, and are most numerous in southern and western Sudan. The country is further divided with hundreds of black, Arab, and non-Arab ethnicities, tribes, and languages." The U.S. Department of State has labeled Sudan a "state sponsor of terrorism." 
According to an April 7, 2004, New York Times Op-Ed, "The worsening humanitarian disaster in western Sudan, where thousands of people have been killed and almost a million driven from their homes and farms by government-backed forces, will test whether the world has learned anything from its failure to stop the genocide in Rwanda 10 years ago. The United Nations, the United States, the European Union and African states must press the Sudanese government to halt attacks on civilians and to let aid agencies in. Absent swift and determined international action, Sudan could be another case of outside neglect allowing famine and disease to consume a nation.
"For two decades, the Muslim Arab elite in Khartoum, the capital, has responded ruthlessly to political, economic and social demands from Sudan's ethnically and religiously diverse regions. After a cease-fire was declared in 2002 in the long-running civil war between the government and rebels in the south, Khartoum turned its forces on black African rebels in the Darfur region in the west. Instead of aiming solely at the rebels, however, the government, helped by Arab militias, has also taken aim at civilians.
"Throughout Darfur -- a huge region the size of France -- villages have been bombed and their inhabitants killed, raped and forced into government-run concentration camps, where they are preyed upon further by militia fighters. Aid agencies have been denied access to most of the displaced. Some people, though near starvation, are refusing aid for fear of retribution. The few international monitors in the area estimate that more than 1,000 people are dying each week from violence and disease. With no planting having been done in this agricultural region, the prospect of a devastating famine looms.
"Peace talks between Khartoum and the rebels began this week in neighboring Chad, but are faltering for want of sufficient pressure from the United States, the European Union and African states. The United States should use its leverage with Khartoum -- which sheltered Osama bin Laden for six years but now wants to improve ties with Washington -- to demand that aid agencies and humanitarian monitors have unhindered access to the displaced. If they need military protection, then the international community should be willing to provide it.
"Khartoum's actions in Darfur amount to crimes against humanity, and should be recognized as such by the U.N. Security Council. It is a bleak paradox that Sudan's president, Omar Hassan Ahmed al-Bashir, is scheduled to attend commemorations in Rwanda this week of the genocide there 10 years ago while his forces back home are engaged in such appalling atrocities," according to the New York Times Op-Ed.
Criticisms of intervention
In November 2006 Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi "accused the West of trying to grab Sudan's oil wealth with its plan to send U.N. troops to Darfur and urged Khartoum to reject them. "Western countries and America are not busying themselves out of sympathy for the Sudanese people or for Africa but for oil and for the return of colonialism to the African continent," he said." 
In January 2007, Jay Janson reported that "There has been a glaring omission in the U.S. media presentation of the Darfur tragedy. The compassion demonstrated, mostly in words, until recently, has not been accompanied by a recognition of U.S. complicity, or at least involvement, in the war which has led to the enormous suffering and loss of life that has been taking place in Darfur for many years." 
In August 2007, Stephen Gowans notes that: "Many Western activists have rallied around calls for sanctions on Sudan and UN intervention in Darfur. But a review of recent Western interventions in the world’s trouble spots suggests their faith is misplaced. While the US and its allies, and the UN Security Council, point to lofty goals as the basis for their interventions, the true goals are invariably shaped by the economic interests of the corporations and investment banks that dominate policy making in Western countries. Worse, intervention has typically led to the deterioration of humanitarian crises, not their amelioration." 
In September 2007 Stephen Gowans adds that: "According to the UN commission appointed to investigate Washington’s charges that the Sudanese government is pursing a policy of genocide, the accusations have no foundation. It’s true, the commission found, that Khartoum has responded disproportionately to attacks on government forces by rebel groups, and it’s true that Khartoum is implicated in war crimes, but the commission found no evidence the Sudanese government is engaged in the project of seeking to eliminate an identifiable group, the defining characteristic of a policy of genocide. As far as humanitarian disasters go, the disaster in Iraq is far worse. So who would trust the perpetrators of that disaster – who, after all lied about there being a genocide in Kosovo and banned weapons in Iraq — to intervene in Darfur to resolve the humanitarian crisis there? That would be like giving your car keys to a known thief and pathological liar." 
"Wesley Clark, the former NATO commander stated on DemocracyNow: “… And he said, “This is a memo that describes how we’re going to take out seven countries in five years, starting with Iraq, and then Syria, Lebanon, Libya, Somalia, *Sudan* and, finishing off, Iran.” Amy Goodman interviewed Wesley Clark, “Gen. Wesley Clark Weighs Presidential Bid: “I Think About It Everyday“, 2 March 2007." 
Resources and articles
Related Sourcewatch articles
- Abdel Rahim Hamdi
- AirScan Inc.
- Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Company
- human rights
- Investors Against Genocide
- Israeli Coalition for the Refugees of Darfur and Sudan
- Mansoor Ijaz/Sudan
- Pax Americana, Africa
- Sudan's oil industry
- Sudanese Peoples Liberation Army
- Summit Communications
- war on terrorism
- ↑ Sudan Facts, National Geographic, accessed December 2010.
- ↑ Moammar Gadhafi, "Gadhafi: U.N. Darfur Force Is Ruse to Grab Sudan's Oil", Global Research, November 20, 2006.
- ↑ Jay Janson, "Early CIA Involvement in Darfur Has Gone Unreported", Global Research, January 24, 2007.
- ↑ Stephen Gowans, "Faith in UN Intervention in Darfur Misplaced", Global Research, August 10, 2007.
- ↑ Stephen Gowans, "Faith in UN Intervention in Darfur Misplaced Faith in UN Intervention in Darfur Misplaced", Znet, September 24, 2007.
- ↑ Paul de Rooij, "“Humanitarian Wars” and Associated Delusions", Fanonite, August 14, 2007.
- International Crisis Group: Crisis in Darfur. (For more on this elite planning group see International Crisis Group)
- VIDEO: Sudan The Quick and the Terrible, PBS FrontLine, January 2005.
- "Sudan: Death Toll in Darfur", Bureau of Intelligence and Research, March 25, 2005.
- "History of Sudan" in the Wikipedia.
- Timeline: Sudan, BBC, accessed December 2010.
U.S. Department of State Country Report: Sudan
- Sudan Country Report on Human Rights Practices for 1996, U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, January 30, 1997.
- Sudan Country Report on Human Rights Practices for 1997, U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, January 30, 1998.
- Sudan Country Report on Human Rights Practices for 1998, U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, January 30, 1999.
U.S. State Department Reports and Notes on Counter-Terrorism and Sanctions
- 1996 Patterns of Global Terrorism Report: Overview of State-Sponsored Terrorism, U.S. Department of State, 1996.
- 1998 Patterns of Global Terrorism Report: Overview of State-Sponsored Terrorism, U.S. Department of State, 1998.
- 1998 Patterns of Global Terrorism Report: Overview of State-Sponsored Terrorism, U.S. Department of State, April 1999.
- Sudan: Militant Training Camps, Office of the Spokesman, U.S. Department of State, Washington, DC, April 23, 2002. (Question taken at April 23, 2002 Daily Press Briefing).
- Sanctions Against Sudan, Office of the Spokesman, U.S. Department of State, Washington, DC, May 22, 2003. (Question Taken at Daily Briefing of May 21, 2003 re 1997 sanctions on investment in oil re U.S. businesses and individuals).
- President George W. Bush, Message to the Congress of the United States, The White House, October 29, 2003.
- Background Note: Sudan, U.S. Department of State, Bureau of African Affairs, January 2006.
Articles & commentary
- Op-Ed: "Peril in Sudan," New York Times, April 7, 2004.
- "Arming the perpetrators of grave abuses in Darfur", Amnesty International, November 16, 2004.
- Jan Pronk, "Statement to the Security Council by Jan Pronk, Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Sudan", AfricaFocus.org, January 11, 2005.
- "Report of the International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur to the United Nations Secretary-General", January 25, 2005
- Eric Reeves, "Report of the International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur", Sudan Tribune, February 3, 2005.
- "Prospects for Peace in Sudan Briefing,", Justice Africa.org, February 23, 2005.
- "U.N.: Pass Resolution to Refer Darfur to ICC", Human Rights Watch, March 25, 2005.
- Kofi A. Annan, "Billions of Promises to Keep", New York Times (AfricaFocus.org), April 13, 2005.
- "Darfur's frustrated peacekeeper", BBC News, April 28, 2005.
- Ken Silverstein, "Official Pariah Sudan Valuable to America's War on Terrorism", Los Angeles Times (Global Policy), April 29, 2005.
- Emily Wax, "In Divided Darfur, a Shared Will to Fight", Washington Post, May 17, 2005.
- Nat Hentoff, "An Ally from Hell: CIA's close relationship with Sudan's government enables genocide there to continue", The Village Voice (Truthout), May 20, 2005.
- Kofi A. Annan, "Darfur: A peaceful option", Washington Times, May 26, 2005.
- Nicholas Kristof, "Day 141 of Bush's Silence", New York Times (truthout.org), May 31, 2005.
- Kofi A. Annan, "In Larger Freedom: Decision Time at the UN", Foreign Affairs. May/June 2005.
- Andrew McGregor, "Terrorism and Violence in the Sudan: The Islamist manipulation of Darfur", The Jamestown Foundation, June 17, 2005 Vol. 3, Issue 12.
- David C. Gompert, Courtney Richardson, Richard L. Kugler, and Clifford H. Bernath, "Learning from Darfur: Building a Net-Capable African Force to Stop Mass Killing" (pdf file), Center for Technology and National Security Policy, July 2005.
- "New clashes break out in Darfur", BBC News, July 25, 2005.
- Ann Scott Tyson, "US Pushes Anti-Terrorism in Africa", Washington Post, July 26, 2005.
- "Sudan: Peace Steps, Peace Gaps", AfricaFocus Bulletin (FirstGlobalSelect.com), July 19, 2005.
- "Future of Foreign Investment in Sudan," A Working Paper Delivered by Abdel Rahim Hamdi, a Member of the National Congress Party (NCP) and an ex-Minister for Economy and Finance, Khartoum, September 11-12, 2005. Translated by Abdullahi El-Tom. Office of Strategic Planning and Training, JEM Abuja, 10/10/2005.
- "AU Press Statement on the Deteriorating Security Situation in Darfur", Sudan Tribune, October 1, 2005.
- "Peacekeepers die in Darfur ambush," BBC, October 8, 2005.
- Editorial, "Negotiating with Genocide", Washington Post, October 9, 2005.
- "Senate Learns of U.S. Military Partnerships in Africa; EUCOM's General Jones Details Security Cooperation Programs", Defense Aerospace.com (U.S. Department of State), October 7, 2005.
- "Peacekeepers Seized in Darfur," World News Australia, October 10, 2005.
- Irwin Arieff, "US Blocks UN Briefing on Atrocities in Sudan", Reuters (Common Dreams), October 11, 2005.
- "Wars 'less frequent, less deadly'," BBC, October 17, 2005.
- Robert Young, "Why Wait on Darfur?", Boston Globe, October 24, 2005.
- Christopher Hitchens, "Realism in Darfur", Slate, November 7, 2005.
- Nicholas D. Kristof, "A Tolerable Genocide", New York Times (truthout.org), November 27, 2005.
- Evelyn Leopold, "UN Contemplates Military Operation for Darfur", Reuters (GlobalPolicyForum.org), December 4, 2005.
- "Civilians still victims of violent conflict despite recent UN efforts, Annan says," UN News Centre, December 9, 2005.
- Daniel Pepper and Abraham McLaughlin, "AU struggles to calm Darfur", Christian Science Monitor, December 22, 2005.
- Barack Obama and Sam Brownback, "Policy Adrfit on Darfur", Washington Post, December 27, 2005.
- Report: "Entrenching Impunity Government Responsibility for International Crimes in Darfur," Human Rights Watch, December 2005, VOl. 17, No. 17(A).
- "Sudan: Saving Peace in the East", Crisis Group.org, January 5, 2006.
- Meera Selva, "Bankrupt peacekeeping mission leaves Darfur civilians exposed", The Independent Online, January 21, 2006.
- "UN official warns Security Council of looming humanitarian catastrophe in Sudan", UN News Centre, January 24, 2006.
- Nick Tattersall, "International force in Darfur must be African-led", Reuters, January 25, 2006.
- "New clashes in Sudan's Darfur region signal continuing tensions, UN mission says," UN News Centre, January 30, 2006.
- "France says willing to join peacekeeping force for Darfu", Kuwait News Agency, February 10, 2006.
- Carola Hoyos, "Sudan: China, India fill void left by rights campaigners," Sudan Tribune, March 2, 2006.
- "Sudan harvest improves, but 7 million people will need food aid, UN agencies say," UN News Centre, February 17, 2006.
- "More attacks in Northern Darfur signal sustained volatility, UN Mission says," UN News Centre, February 22, 2006.
- "Sudan's parliament rejects deployment of UN forces in Darfur", People's Daily Online, February 23, 2006.
- "Sudan reiterates refusal of UN peacekeeping deployment in Darfur," People's Daily Online, February 26, 2006.
- Edith M. Lederer, "Security Council Split on Darfur Conflict", ABC News International, February 27, 2006.
- Lydia Polgreen, "Refugee crisis grows as Darfur War crosses a border", New York Times, February 28, 2006.
- Sally Chin and Sarah Martin, "Sudan: Strengthen the African Union Force During Transition to UN Peacekeepers", Refugees International.org, February 28, 2006.
- Peter Heinlein, "UN Takeover of Darfur Peacekeeping Mission in Doubt", Voice of America, March 1, 2006.
- James Forsyth, "Realism and Darfur", The New Republic Online, March 1, 2006.
- Maggie Farley, "U.N. reports Sudan threat: Al-Qaida said to threaten envoy, peacekeeping troops", Baltimore Sun, March 1, 2006.
- Eric Reeves, "Darfur Held Hostage: Khartoum adamantly rejects UN Force", Sudan Times, March 1, 2006.
- "Khartoum works to block UN peacekeeping in Darfur," Angola Press, March 2, 2006.
- Abdullahi Tasiu Abubakar, "Nigeria Sends New Troops to Darfur,", Daily Trust (AllAfrica.com), March 2, 2006.
- "US Senate calls for NATO involvement in Darfur peacekeeping", Sudan Tribune, March 3, 2006.
- Jeffrey H. Birnbaum, "Shutting the Revolving Door on Sudan", Washington Post, March 6, 2006.
- Transcript: DoD News Briefing with Gen. James L. Jones, U.S. Department of Defense, March 6, 2006. General James L. Jones re NATO Response Force: "We have a small mission in Darfur in support of the African Union. Essentially, this is a two-pronged mission: one is to airlift battalions into the Sudan, and the other is to assist the African Union military components with some capacity building, help them to understand how you do expeditionary operations, expeditionary logistics, command and control and things that will enable them to better train their forces and be more successful in their deployments."
- Glenn Kessler, "Sudan's Peace Deal, Seen as a Bush Success, Is Endangered," Washington Post, January 28, 2007.
- Vijay Prashad, "Destination Darfur: A New Cold War Over Oil", Counterpunch, August 11 / 12, 2007.
- Keith Harmon Snow, "America's War In Darfur", Global Research, November 25, 2007.
- Bruce Dixon, "Ten Reasons Why "Save Darfur" is a PR Scam to Justify the Next US Oil and Resource Wars in Africa", Black Agenda Report, November 27, 2007.
- Gbemisola Olujobi, "How Not to Help Africans", Truthdig, November 26, 2007 Also see