Ted Stevens

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Ted Stevens served as the Sr. Senator for Alaska from 1968-2008

Theodore Fulton "Ted" Stevens, a Republican, who previously represented the state of Alaska in the United States Senate between 1968 and his loss of the seat following his criminal conviction for corruption in 2008, was killed in a plane crash on August 10, 2010. Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in Anchorage is named after him. In December 1978, Stevens survived the crash of a Lear jet at the airport, which killed five people, including his first wife, Ann.

He was the longest-serving Republican member of the Senate. Stevens was the President pro tempore of the Senate, the third in the line of succession for the Presidency, following the Vice President and the Speaker of the House, until 2007 when the Democratic Party took back the majority in Congress, and he then served as the "ranking member" of the Senate.

On October 27, 2008 Stevens was convicted by a federal jury on seven counts of "knowingly and willfully" making false statements on his Senate personal financial disclosure forms. Stevens had been charged with making false statements involving gifts and services he received in connection with VECO Inc., an oil services company in Alaska."[1] He was defeated in his re-election bid by Alaska Mayor Mark Begich (D) in the 2008 congressional election. Stevens will face a sentencing hearing on February 25, 2009.[2] Due to a subsequent judicial finding of prosecutorial misconduct, the conviction was thrown out. That does not mean he did not commit any crimes; it means the judge found the prosecutors' behavior in the case so inappropriate that he dismissed the case against him as punishment for their acts and omissions.

Record and controversies

Oil Record: 100% for industry

Ted Stevens voted in favor of big oil companies on 100% of important oil-related bills, according to Oil Change International. These bills include Iraq War funding, climate change studies, clean energy, and reduced oil imports. [3] See below for oil money in politics.

Among other things, in 2005, Stevens also prevented oil executives from being placed under oath when they spoke before a Senate committee hearing of which he was the Chairman, despite the insistence of committee member Maria Cantwell. [1] It is unusual for this to happen, though it is well within the power of the Chair of a committee. The hearing was on the increasing price of petrol to consumers and oil industry profits.

In another typical example, on December 15, 2005, Stevens also attached ANWR drilling language to the annual defense appropriations bill. This House-Senate conference committee compromise bill had provisions for both Hurricane Katrina and for defense spending. On December 21, 2005, the Senate refused to end debate on legislation on the bill. The Senate fell three votes short of invoking cloture on the matter, leaving the debate open on the annual defense appropriations bill. The vote went as follows: Fifty-three Republicans as well as four Democrats voted unsuccessfully to end debate; Two Republicans, 41 Democrats voted to block. By a vote of 48-45, the Senate removed the ANWR language from the appropriations bill. [2]

Iraq War

Stevens voted for the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq in Oct. 2002.

In 2003, Stevens sponsored the Supplemental Appropriations Act to Support Department of Defense Operations in Iraq for Fiscal Year 2003, which included an appropriation of $603 million for "force protection gear and combat clothing". Later that year, he also sponsored the Emergency Supplemental Appropriations for Iraq and Afghanistan Security and Reconstruction Act, 2004, which included $300 million in appropriations for the purchase of body armor for troops in Iraq and Afghanistan.

Main article: Congressional Actions Providing Body Armor to Troops

In 2003, Stevens effectively killed several amendments to the the defense appropriations bill for fiscal year 2004. The first was an amendment (S.AMDT.1244) introduced by Sen. Robert Byrd (D-W.Va.) that would have prohibited federal funding for National Guardsmen who had been stationed in Iraq for over 180 days or had been called into active duty more than once over the course of a 360-day period (effectively preventing it from happening). With the unanimous support of all Senate Republicans, Stevens motioned to table (kill) this amendment.

He also blocked an amendment by Sen. Jon Corzine (D-N.J.) which would have created an independent, twelve person committee to investigate the Bush administration's intelligence-gathering operation before the Iraq War. Supporters, all Democrats, believed the measure would necessarily force the president to be accountable for the intelligence used to justify war. Stevens, who was supported by every Senate Republican, had called a similar Democratic amendment for an investigation "nitpicking."

He also killed an amendment by Sen. Ted Kennedy (D-Mass.) which would have required President Bush to report to Congress his strategy for reconstruction efforts in Iraq, humanitarian aid assistance to Iraqi citizens, and encouraging international support for the rebuilding efforts.

An amendment (S.AMDT.1264) introduced by Sen. Byron Dorgan (R-N.D.), requiring President Bush to submit to Congress a cost estimate of military operations in Iraq, was also successfully tabled by Stevens, as was an amendment (S.AMDT.1277) offered by Sen. Dick Durbin (D-Ill.) to withhold $50 million in intelligence funding until President Bush submitted a report explaining how his administration handled the intelligence leading up to the Iraq War. Supporters argued that the measure would force the administration to be accountable for intelligence used to justify the war. Sen. Stevens (R-Alaska) joined every other Senate Republican in opposing the amendment, arguing that "history shows clearly that Iraq has tried to acquire and did acquire nuclear capability in the past."

Main article: Congressional actions on the Iraq War following the 2003 U.S. invasion
For more information see the chart of U.S. Senate votes on the Iraq War.

Reparations for Japanese Latin Americans

Stevens cosponsored The Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Latin Americans of Japanese Descent Act in the 110th Congress which would establish a commission that would determine the facts and circumstances involving the relocation, internment and deportation of Japanese Latin Americans.[4]

Main article: Redress for Japanese Latin Americans/ U.S. legislation#Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Latin Americans of Japanese Descent Act of 2007

Hold on Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act

When the Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act was placed on the Senate calendar on August 2, 2006, the bill was prevented from reaching the floor by Sens. Stevens and Robert Byrd (D-W.Va.), who each put anonymous holds on it. For weeks, it was uncertain which senator(s) had placed the holds. In response, many in the blogging community contacted senatorial offices in an attempt to pin down the “secret” holders. By August 30, 2006, denials were obtained by 98 senators, leaving only Stevens and Byrd. On this date, a spokesperson for Stevens admitted that the seven-term senator had a hold on the legislation. He explained that Stevens merely wanted the bill delayed until he was convinced that it would not create another unnecessary layer of government bureaucracy. There were also reports by some that Stevens may have been acting in retaliation. In 2005, Sen. Tom Coburn (R-Okla.), a sponsor of the bill, placed a hold on a Stevens’s bill concerning ocean research, arguing that it was too expensive.

Bridge to Nowhere

In addition, Coburn was a vocal opponent of the $223 million appropriation that Stevens advocated for a bridge connecting two sparsely-populated Alaskan islands (commonly known as the "Bridge to nowhere"). On August 31, a spokesperson for Byrd confirmed his hold in a statement. It noted that the senator, “wanted time to read the legislation, understand its implications, and see whether the proposal could be improved.” Upon issuing the statement, Byrd announced that he was releasing his hold. In the week that followed, Stevens dropped his hold, reinstated it, and then dropped it yet again. There were also rumors during this time that another Democrat had placed a hold on the bill. This, however, was never substantiated.

In the days surrounding the search and revelation of the anonymous holders, leaders from both major political parties expressed displeasure with those keeping the bill from the floor. DNC Chairman Howard Dean singled out Stevens, blaming him for “the wasteful mess that he and his party have made of the federal budget.” Meanwhile, Senate Majority Leader Bill Frist (R-Tenn.) criticized those involved, calling it “deeply ironic” that legislation designed to remove anonymity from earmarks was being stopped by secret holds. Frist then declared that he would bring the legislation to the floor “hold or no hold.” As majority leader, he did indeed have the power to go forward with the bill regardless of any outstanding holds on it.

By September 7, all holds were removed from S.2590 and the Senate finally considered it. Eventually, it passed both the Senate and House and was singed into law by President Bush.

Main article: Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act

Stevens threatened to block ethics bill

In one of his last major acts as Senator, in a closed session with other Republicans including Vice President Dick Cheney, Stevens said that he would block a comprehensive ethics reform package that had recently passed the House because it would create new restrictions on air travel would hinder Members who live distant states, such as Alaska.[5]

Alaska pork

An appropriator and former head of the Senate's spending committee, Stevens has been accused of directing large amounts of pork barrel projects to Alaska. This was most recently highlighted by the intense scrutiny of the two "bridges to nowhere" that were included in the law authorizing federal transportation programs through 2010.

On October 20, 2005, Stevens threatened to resign from the Senate if lawmakers passed language that would have stripped money allocated for two bridges in Alaska and redirected it to Hurricane Katrina repairs in Louisiana. [3] That language was defeated, but in the face of intense public and private criticism, Congress later defunded the bridges specifically and instead redirected the money to a pot for Alaska's general transportation use. Stevens said later that he would not resign over this action because the money is not being taken away from Alaska in general. The Senator's comments on December 21, 2005 after a contentious vote on a defense bill from which ANWR provisions had been removed again prompted speculation over his resignation. [4]

On August 30, 2006, a spokesman for Stevens announced that the senator had placed an anonymous hold on the Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006 sponsored by Sens. Tom Coburn (R-Okla.), Barack Obama (D-Ill.), Tom Carper (D-Del.), and John McCain (R-Ariz.). The bill would reform the earmarking process in Congress and, among other things, establish a searchable database of all federal government appropriations. [5]

Proponent of Killing Net Neutrality

In 2006, Stevens authored the Senate version of telecommunications legislation that would end network neutrality. Some senators and their staffers complained to reporters that they had been shut out of the bill writing process. [6] The bill was S.2686, the Communications, Consumers’ Choice, and Broadband Deployment Act of 2006. It was co-sponsored by Sen. Daniel Inouye (D-Hawaii). [7] It was scheduled to be debated in Stevens's Commerce Committee on June 8 and may be voted on by the full Senate before the August recess. [8]

On June 28, 2006, the Senate commerce committee was in the final day of three days of hearings [9], during which the Committee members considered over 200 amendments. Senators Olympia Snowe (R-ME) and Byron Dorgan (D-ND) cosponsored and spoke on behalf of an amendment that would have inserted strong network neutrality mandates into the bill.

Calling the Internet akin to "Tubes"

In between speeches by Snowe and Dorgan, Stevens gave an 11-minute speech in which he made several technical and terminological errors while attempting to explain his opposition to the amendment. Among others, Stevens likened the Internet to a series of tubes that could be clogged with information. He also complained that "an internet was sent" by his staff which took five days to arrive because of commercial traffic.

They want to deliver vast amounts of information over the internet. And again, the internet is not something you just dump something on. It's not a big truck.
It's a series of tubes.
And if you don't understand those tubes can be filled and if they are filled, when you put your message in, it gets in line and its going to be delayed by anyone that puts into that tube enormous amounts of material, enormous amounts of material.

Of 22 Senators, 11 voted for the amendment and 11 against. Because it failed to garner majority support, the amendment failed.

The audio from the day's hearing is available at the Committee web site [10] as a streaming media file in RealMedia format, playable with RealPlayer. Stevens's speech begins at 1:13:11 and ends at 1:24:19.

Soon after, the blogosphere was buzzing about Stevens's unique interpretation of how the internet worked; many writers and commentators derisively cited several of Senator Stevens's misunderstandings of internet technology, arguing that the speech showed that Senator Stevens had apparently formed a strong opinion on a topic which he understood poorly. The internet phenomenon sparked mainstream media attention, including a mention in a New York Times story [11]. The technology podcast "This Week in Tech" discussed the incident in Episode 60, A Series of Tubes.

Within two weeks, the speech had also become the subject of a T-shirt design [12], at least two musical remixes [13] [14], a myspace fan site [15], and a blogspot spoof blog [16].

Stevens's speech was also ridiculed on The Daily Show with Jon Stewart which featured clips of Stevens's speech. [17] Stewart proceeded to mock him stating, "you don't seem to know jack shit about computers or the internet, but that's OK — you're just the guy in charge of regulating it."

Ethics problems

In 2003, The Los Angeles Times published charges that Stevens had gained financially through influence peddling, steering government contracts to his associates, and insider trading (see below), all of which Stevens denied. [18]

In 1997, Stevens invested $50,000 with developer Jonathan B. Rubini. In 2002 Rubini and his partner bought back the senator's interests in their deals for $872,000. During the time that Stevens had money invested with Rubini, Stevens steered a $450 million contract to Rubini to build and own housing at Elmendorf Air Force Base. Rubini's company was one of the only in-state outfits capable of handling the contract. The senator had no financial interest in that deal. [19]

Favors for his son

On August 31, 2006, the Sunlight Foundation, a Washington-based government watchdog group, exposed a 2003 LA Times article documenting nine separate cases in which Stevens did favors for organizations which had employed his son, Ben Stevens. (See Sunlight blog for full account)

Since this time, other favors have been reported. In late 2003, Stevens secured a $29 million earmark for the "Alaska Fisheries Marketing Board," which was chaired by Ben Stevens. In December 2005, Stevens helped secure a $10 million earmark for a fishing venture for which Ben secretly held an investment option. [20]

In 2005, The Anchorage Daily News reported that Ben Stevens held an option to buy into an Alaska seafood company at the same time as Sen. Stevens was creating a special Aleutian Islands fishery that would supply the company with pollock worth millions of dollars a year. Ben Steven's interest was withdrawn. [21]

Fishery connected with Ben Stevens received earmark from Ted Stevens

In late July, 2007, it was revealed that Trident Seafoods Corp., a fishery that received a $3.5 million earmark from Stevens to build an airfield, had connections to Stevens's son, Ben Stevens. While Trident provided the elder Stevens with thousands of dollars in campaign funds, it also provided the younger Stevens with "consulting" payments as he would direct federal grants to it, and many other companies.[6]

Financial disclosure extensions

On June 15, 2007, Stevens requested an extension from the Senate Ethics Committee for filing his financial disclosure forms, by asking for a review of his financial records for the previous year. The forms were due on May 15, however, Stevens did not meet the deadline. Requesting a review of previous records allows a Senator an extension on filing current documents. Such extensions are a common tactic for member of Congress under investigation or worried over legal concerns.[7]

On July 17, 2007, Stevens received an additional extension on submitting his financial disclosure forms. The Senate Ethics Committee, upon completing its review of Stevens's previous financial records, asked for technical clarifications for the disclosure, and granted the Senator the new extension in order to fulfill the request.[8][9]

Veco corruption investigation

Alaska Sen. Ted Stevens was indicted for his connections to a probe of Alaskan lawmakers and their relationship to the VECO oil company. Investigators are looking into the remodeling of Stevens' home in Girdwood, Alaska that involved top VECO executives. Former VECO chief executive Bill Allen, awaiting sentencing after pleading guilty to bribing Alaska lawmakers, spearheaded the remodeling project by hiring the contractors and directing them to send him the same bills that were being sent to Stevens.

On July 29, 2008, Department of Justice investigators announced a grand jury had indicted Stevens for seven counts of making false statements, alleging he failed to disclose $250,000 in goods and services, including the work done on his home, as required by the Ethics in Government Act.[10]

On October 27, a federal jury convicted Stevens of "knowingly and willfully" making false statements on his Senate personal financial disclosure forms. He faces five years in prison for each count and has a sentencing hearing on February 25, 2009.[11]

Due to a finding of prosecutorial misconduct the conviction was later thrown out by a judge.

Main article: Ted Stevens/Veco corruption investigation

Ferry project boon to those close to Stevens

A $20 million earmark inserted into the 2008 Defense appropriations bill by Stevens and signed into law by President Bush on November 13, 2007 could be a boon to those close to the senator. The earmark was listed as funding for an “expeditionary craft” for the Navy, but it would ultimately be used as a commercial ferry between Anchorage and the Knik Arm. The Knik Arm is a remote piece of land which takes over two hours to reach by car but 15 minutes by boat.[12][13]

Appropriators made cuts to many of the earmarks in the bill, but Stevens’ earmark was untouched even though the Navy did not request the money and rejected the experimental craft in 2002 as impractical. The ferry would be built by Lockheed Martin and would connect downtown Anchorage to Port MacKenzie, bringing cars and passengers to Knik Arm. Bill Bittner, Stevens’ brother-in-law, spent years as a registered lobbyist in Washington with Lockheed Martin as one of his clients. Despite the Navy’s rejection of the craft, Stevens inserted nearly $50 million for the project into appropriations bills from 2002-2006. [14][15]

Several former and current members of Stevens' staff own undeveloped land on the Knik Arm including Chief of Staff George Lowe with a 2.6-acre parcel of undeveloped land which rose over $10,000 in appraised value from 2005 to 2006 and former top aide and re-election campaign worker Lisa Sutherland with just under 4 acres with her husband. The value of their land rose from $38,400 in 2005 to $65,000 in 2006. [16]

Other Examples of Earmark Misuse

New documents emerged showing that a $1.6 million earmark in 2005 by Stevens was engineered so it would lead to the purchase of property owned by his former aide, Trevor McCabe, an Anchorage fisheries lobbyist.

Recently-disclosed public records show that Brad Gilman, a Washington lobbyist who once worked for Stevens, allegedly acted as the go-between for the 2005 earmark infraction, connecting an unnamed ‘Senate aide’ with his two clients based in Seward, Alaska: the city of Seward, and the Alaska Sealife Center, a federally supported marine research facility. According to Gilman, the ‘Senate aide’ was shopping for a guarantee that McCabe’s property would be purchased if it received the earmark. The apparent result was the sudden shift of the earmark by Stevens' office in 2005 from the City of Seward, which wouldn't promise to buy the property, to the Alaska SeaLife Center, which had more discretion, according to Seward officials.[17]

Tobacco issues

Senator Stevens has introduced public-health oriented bills with respect to tobacco issues:

In 1985, Senator Stevens amended a defense appropriations bill to prevent any federal funding of military commissaries that do not charge a price for cigarettes equal to the lowest average retail price in the area less state and local taxes. The minimum price at commissaries outside the US would be based on the average national retail price of cigarettes.[22]

In 1986, Senator Stevens introduced S. 1440, the Non-Smokers Rights Act, which required the designation of smoking areas in all branches of federal government. The full Senate did not act on the bill.[23]


Stevens was born November 18, 1923 in Indianapolis, Indiana. During World War II, he was a pilot in China with the "Flying Tigers" of the Fourteenth Air Force from 1943 to 1946. There he received two Distinguished Flying Crosses and two Air Medals, as well as the Yuan Hai medal of Taiwan. [24]

After the war ended, Stevens attended UCLA and Harvard Law School. In the early 1950s he moved to Alaska, then an incorporated territory. In Fairbanks Stevens practiced law, and he was appointed U.S. Attorney for Fairbanks in 1953. [25]

In 1956 Stevens was transferred to Washington, D.C. There he worked as legislative counsel and assistant to Secretary of the Interior Fred Seaton. He also pushed for the statehood of Alaska and Hawaii, which occurred in 1959. In 1960, then-President Dwight D. Eisenhower promoted Stevens to solicitor of the Department of the Interior. [26]

Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in Anchorage is named after him. In December 1978, Stevens survived the crash of a Lear jet at the airport, which killed five people, including his first wife, Ann.

Stevens's son, Ben Stevens, was appointed to the Alaska Senate in 2001, and is currently the Senate President. [27]

Stevens's current home in Alaska is in Girdwood. His campaign political action committee is called the "Northern Lights PAC." [28]

After returning to Alaska, Stevens practiced law in Anchorage. He was elected to the Alaska House of Representatives in 1964, and became House majority leader in his second term.

U.S. Senate career

In December 1968, Governor of Alaska Walter Joseph Hickel appointed Stevens to the U.S. Senate after the death of Bob Bartlett. In U.S. Senate election of 1970, Stevens was elected to finish the term in a special election, and has been reelected six times since, in 1972, 1978, 1984, 1990, 1996 and 2002. His current term will expire in 2009. [29]

Stevens served as the Assistant Republican Whip from 1977 to 1985. In 1994, Stevens was appointed Chairman of the Senate Rules Committee. Stevens became the Senate's president pro tempore when Republicans regained control of the chamber as a result the 2002 mid-term elections. He is a former Chairman of the Senate Governmental Affairs Committee and the powerful Senate Appropriations Committee. In the past, Stevens also has served as Chairman of the Senate Ethics Committee, the Arms Control Observer Group, and the Joint Committee on the Library of Congress. [30]

Stevens did break with his party to support human embryonic stem cell research. [31]

According to his P.R. team, when he discussed issues that were especially important to him (such as drilling for oil in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge), he used to wear a necktie with The Incredible Hulk on it to show his seriousness. [32]

2008 election

Despite suggestions that a federal investigation into his congressional dealings might force him to retire, Stevens filed for reelection on February 21. The longtime senator faced his most difficult race since being appointed to his seat in 1968, after questions about his relationship with a convicted VECO Corp. executive evolved first into a federal investigation, and later an indictment, for Stevens. Democrats nominated Anchorage Mayor Mark Begich for the race.[18]

Following his conviction by a federal jury, Stevens remained adamant of his innocence and vowed to appeal. The conviction came just days before the November 4 general election, which Stevens appeared to win. Unofficial results posted that day by the State of Alaska indicated Stevens was ahead by more than 3,000 votes. However, tens of thousands of absentee and provisional ballots had not been counted. Meanwhile, some of Stevens' colleagues in the Senate, including several Republicans, called for him to resign his seat. Minority Leader Mitch McConnell (R-Ky.) indicated Stevens might be expelled if the Alaska Republican's conviction was upheld, but later walked back the statement as it appeared Stevens would be re-elected.

After almost two weeks of counting, the results shifted in favor of Begich, who on November 18 held a 3,724-vote lead. Several news organizations, including the Associated Press, called the race for Begich at that time.[19]

On November 19, 2008, Stevens conceded the race to Mark Begich. [20]

Money in politics

Oil Money in Politics

Ted Stevens has accepted $130,150 in oil contributions during the 110th congress. $69,000 of those dollars were from industry PACS. [21] In total, Stevens has received $259,290 from oil companies since 2000, which made him one of the top recipients of oil money in the Senate. [22] See above for oil and energy voting record.

Former Coalitions and Caucuses

  • Caucuses/Non-Legislative Committees:
  • Committee on Committees
  • Senate Co Chair, National Security Caucus
  • Vice Chair, Office of Technology Assessment
  • Policy Committee

Former Boards and other Affiliations

  • Alaska Bar Association
  • American Bar Association
  • American Legion
  • California Bar Association
  • District of Columbia Bar Association
  • Federal Bar Association
  • Rotary
  • Veterans of Foreign Wars

More Background Data

Wikipedia also has an article on Ted Stevens. This article may use content from the Wikipedia article under the terms of the GFDL.

Articles and resources


  1. Conor Kenny, "Ted Stevens Convicted on All Counts in Corruption Trial," PRWatch.org, October 27, 2008
  2. ""Stevens says,'I am innocent' After Corruption Conviction," CNN, October 27, 2008.
  3. Vote Tracker
  5. Jonathan Weisman, "House Votes 411-8 to Pass Ethics Overhaul," Washington Post, August 1, 2007.
  6. Laura McGann. "Company Tied To Stevens Fishery Scandal Got $3.5 Million Earmark," TPM Muckraker. August 1, 2007.
  7. Laura McGann, "Stevens Asks For Extension To File Financial Disclosure Forms," TPM Muckraker, June 15, 2007.
  8. Jeannette J. Lee, "Stevens gets ethics extension," Anchorage Daily News, July 17, 2007.
  9. Laura McGann, "Stevens Needs Second Disclosure Extension," TPM Muckraker, July 17, 2007.
  10. "Sen. Ted Stevens Indicted: Alaska Republican Faces Seven Count Indictment For False Statements In Federal Corruption Probe," CBS News, July 29, 2008.
  11. ""Stevens says,'I am innocent' After Corruption Conviction," CNN, October 27, 2008.
  12. Paul Kiel, “Stevens’ "Ferry to Nowhere" to Boost Land Value for Former Aides," TPMMuckraker, November 15, 2007.
  13. Matt Kelley, "How ferry project, pushed by Sen. Stevens, floated," USA Today, September 29, 2007.
  14. Paul Kiel, "Stevens’ "Ferry to Nowhere" to Boost Land Value for Former Aides," TPMMuckraker, November 15, 2007.
  15. Matt Kelley, "How ferry project, pushed by Sen. Stevens, floated," USA Today, September 29, 2007.
  16. Paul Kiel, "Stevens' "Ferry to Nowhere" to Boost Land Value for Former Aides," TPMMuckraker, November 15, 2007.
  17. Richard Mauer and Tom Kizzia, "SeaLife was good deal for ex-aide to Stevens," Anchorage Daily News, February 10, 2008.
  18. Aaron Blake, "Stevens files for reelection," The Hill, February 21, 2008.
  19. Rachel Kapochunas, " Begich Defeats Convicted Sen. Ted Stevens in Alaska," CQ Politics, November 18, 2008
  20. "Stevens Concedes Alaska Senate race" CNN, November 19, 2008
  21. Follow the Oil Money
  22. Vote Tracker