From SourceWatch
Jump to: navigation, search

WARNING! Sewage sludge is toxic. Food should not be grown in "biosolids." Join the Food Rights Network.

Yttrium is a silvery white lustrous metal.[1] In the Periodic Table, its symbol is Y and its atomic number is 39. It was discovered in Sweden in 1794.[2] Yttrium is found in most rare-earth minerals and in moon rocks.[3]


Yttrium oxide is used to produce the red color in color television tubes and to produce yttrium-iron-garnets, which are used as microwave filters.[4] Yttrium can also be used in laser systems, as a catalyst for ethylene polymerization reactions, and as a gemstone.[5]

In the Environment

In Sewage Sludge

In the Targeted National Sewage Sludge Survey, a 2009 test of 84 samples of sewage sludge from around the U.S., the EPA found yttrium in every sample in concentrations ranging from 0.70 to 26.3 parts per million.[6]

Articles and resources

Related SourceWatch articles


  1. WebElements: Yttrium, Accessed August 31, 2010.
  2. Yttrium, Accessed August 31, 2010.
  3. WebElements: Yttrium, Accessed August 31, 2010.
  4. Yttrium, Accessed August 31, 2010.
  5. Yttrium, Accessed August 31, 2010.
  6. Targeted National Sewage Sludge Survey Report, US EPA website, Accessed August 28, 2010.

External resources

External articles

This article is a stub. You can help by expanding it.