"Cindy Williams is a Senior Research Fellow of the Security Studies Program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Her work includes a study of future US spending for defense and an examination of the US military's experiments on advanced warfighting concepts. Formerly, Dr. Williams served as Assistant Director of the Congressional Budget Office, where she led the National Security Division in studies of budgetary and policy choices related to defense and international security. She has served as a director and in other capacities at The MITRE Corporation and was a member of the Pentagon's Senior Executive Service and Division Director of the Strategic Offensive Force Division in the Office of Program Analysis and Evaluation of the Office of the Secretary of Defense. She holds her Ph.D. from the University of California and BS from the University of Oklahoma."