Andhra Pradesh and coal

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As of 2011, the installed capacity in the state of Andhra Pradesh is 15,800 MW. A survey by the Central Electricity Authority found the peak electrical demand in the state is expected to reach 28,215 MW by 2021.[1] As shown in Table 1 below, 80,560 MW of new coal capacity is in various stages of development in the state, including 2,900 MW commissioned since the beginning of 2010 and 7,933 MW under construction.

The rapid expansion of coal plant capacity across India is creating conflict between coal plant operators and local communities. Nowhere is this more evident than in the state of Andhra Pradesh, on the southeast coast of India. Here, construction initiatives by Nagarjuna Construction Company and Reliance Power have led to widespread resistance among local farmers and fisherman. This resistance has attracted attention by regional and national media outlets, and subsequent investigations have revealed a pattern of "crony capitalism" behind the coal boom.

Table 1: Proposed coal plants (July 2012 status summary)

Andhra Pradesh MW
Proposed 19,885
Early development 9,022
Advanced development 10,310
Construction 7,933
Newly commissioned 2,900
Deferred 11,330
Cancelled 5,720
Uncertain 300
Unconfirmed 13,160
Total 80,560

Table 2: Proposed coal plants (plant-by-plant status)

For a country-wide table of proposed coal plants, see Proposed coal plants in India.

Note: Columns may be sorted by clicking on the headers.

Plant Company MW Annual CO2 (tons) Type Status Year
Adilibad power station (Shalivahana Power Corp.) Shalivahana Power Corp. 300 1,774,110 Uncertain
Ankulapatur power station phase 1 VSF Projects 350 2,069,795 Supercritical Construction
Ankulapatur power station phase 2 VSF Projects 135 798,350 Supercritical Planning
Pynampuram Thermal Power Project Units 1 and 2 Thermal Powertech Corporation 1320 7,806,085 Supercritical Advanced development 2014
Bhavanapadu Thermal Power Project (Kakarapalle) East Coast Energy 2640 15,612,170 Supercritical Deferred
Bhavavipuram Cement power station Deccan Cements 18 106,447 Construction
Budele power station Indu Projects Limited 1000 5,913,701 Unconfirmed
Damodaram Sanjeevaiah Thermal Power Station (Krishnapatnam) Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Corporation (APGENCO) 1600 9,461,921 Supercritical Construction 2013
Damodaram Sanjeevaiah Thermal Power Station (Krishnapatnam) expansion Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Corporation (APGENCO) 2400 14,192,911 Supercritical Cancelled
Dharmavaram power station Nava Bharat Ventures Ltd 150 887,055 Deferred
Dr. RKP Power Ankulapatur power station phases 1 and 2 Dr. RKP Power 430 2,542,891 Advanced development
Garividi power station Facor Power 45 266,117 Construction
Gopuvanipalam Mega Thermal Power Project (Chinnapuram, Machilipatnam) Nagarjuna Construction Company 1980 11,709,128 Supercritical Unconfirmed
Gudur Thermal Power Project (Momidi) Phases I and II Pragdisa Power Private Ltd 2640 15,612,170 Supercritical Planning
Gunipudi power station (NBPL proposal) Namratha Bizili Private Limited 300 1,774,110 Deferred
Gunipudi power station (STEAPL proposal) Suryachakra Group 1320 7,806,085 Ultra Supercritical Advanced development
Hindupur power station Sheshadri Power & Infrastructure 1320 7,806,085 Unconfirmed
Jaipur power station Singareni Collieries 600 3,548,220 Construction 2013
Jharapudi power station Suryachakra Group 140 827,918 Unconfirmed
Kakatiya Thermal Power Project Stage-II Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Corporation (APGENCO) 600 3,548,220 Construction 2012
Kineta Power Stage I (Krishnapatnam) Kineta Power Limited 1320 7,806,085 Supercritical Advanced development
Kineta Power Stage II (Krishnapatnam) Kineta Power Limited 660 3,903,043 Supercritical Planning
Komarada power station Alfa Infraprop Pvt. Ltd. 2640 15,612,170 Supercritical Planning
Kotapally power station (SKIL Group) SKIL Group 600 3,548,220 Unconfirmed
Kothagudem Phase V Unit 10, Phase VI Unit 11 Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Corporation (APGENCO) 1000 5,913,701 Newly commissioned 2011
Kothagudem TPS expansion Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Corporation (APGENCO) 800 4,730,961 Planning
Krishnapatnam Navayuga thermal station Phase I Navayuga Power 1320 7,806,085 Supercritical Advanced development 2014
Krishnapatnam Navayuga thermal station Phase II Navayuga Power 660 3,903,043 Supercritical Planning
Krishnapatnam Ultra Mega Power Project 1-2 Reliance Power 1320 7,806,085 Deferred 2013
Krishnapatnam Ultra Mega Power Project 3-6 Reliance Power 2640 15,612,170 Deferred 2015
Latchayapeta power station NCS Sugars Ltd. 600 3,548,220 Planning
Lovapalem power station My Home Power Ltd. 1000 5,913,701 Unconfirmed
Meenakshi Energy Thermal Power Project Phase-I Meenakshi Energy 300 1,774,110 Construction 2012
Meenakshi Energy Thermal Power Project Phase-II Meenakshi Energy 600 3,548,220 Advanced development 2013-2014
Meghavaram Kakarapalli power station Meghavaram Power 450 2,661,165 Deferred
Muthukur Mandal power station (Painampuram) Nelcast Energy Corporation Ltd 1320 7,806,085 Supercritical Early development
Nagarjuna Construction Company Sompeta Thermal Plant Nagarjuna Construction Company 2640 15,612,170 Deferred
NCC Vamsadhara Mega Power Project Nagarjuna Construction Company 1960 11,590,854 Unconfirmed
Ontimavadi power station GMR Energy 6300 37,256,315 Planning
Paloncha power station expansion #1 Nava Bharat Ventures Ltd 150 887,055 Construction
Paloncha power station expansion #2 Nava Bharat Ventures Ltd 150 887,055 Planning
Pegadapalli (Jaipur Mandal) power station Singareni Collieries 600 3,548,220 Construction
Pentakota power station Namratha Bizili Private Limited 150 887,055 Deferred
Pentakota power station (Srinivasam Energy) Srinivasam Energy Limited 1320 7,806,085 Supercritical Unconfirmed
Pudimadaka Ultra Mega Power Project NTPC 4000 23,654,803 Supercritical Advanced development
Ramagundam Stage-IV NTPC 1000 5,913,701 Early development
Rayalaseema Thermal Power Project Stage-III (Unit 5) Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Corporation (APGENCO) 210 1,241,877 Newly commissioned 2010
Rayalaseema Thermal Power Project Stage-IV (Unit 6) Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Corporation (APGENCO) 600 3,548,220 Construction 2014
Saggonda power station Andhra Sugars 120 709,644 Planning
Sattupally Thermal Power Station Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Corporation (APGENCO) 600 3,548,220 Early development
Sigma Infrarop power station (Khamman) Sigma Infrarop Ltd 2640 15,612,170 Unconfirmed
Simhadri power station units 3 and 4 NTPC 1000 5,913,701 Newly commissioned 2011, 2012
Sompeta power station (Suryachakra) Suryachakra Group 1200 7,096,441 Unconfirmed
Sree Siva Satyadeva Power Plant Sree Siva Satyadeva Power Plant Pvt. 2000 11,827,402 Cancelled
Sri Damodaram Sanjeevaiah (Krishnapatnam) Thermal Power Station Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Corporation (APGENCO) 1600 9,461,921 Construction 2012
Srikakulam Thermal Power Station Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Corporation (APGENCO) 2400 14,192,882 Early development
Thamminapatnam power station (Simhapuri) Phase I Unit 1 Simhapuri Energy 150 887,055 Subcritical Newly commissioned 2012
Thamminapatnam power station (Simhapuri) Phase I Unit 2 Simhapuri Energy 150 887,055 Subcritical Newly commissioned 2012
Thamminapatnam power station (Simhapuri) Phase-II Simhapuri Energy 300 1,774,110 Subcritical Construction 2012
Thamminapatnam power station (Simhapuri) Phase-III Simhapuri Energy 1320 7,806,085 Supercritical Advanced development 2013
Uppada power station Spectrum Power Generation 1320 7,806,085 Cancelled
Vadarevu Ultra Mega Power Project Stages II-III Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Corporation (APGENCO) 2400 14,192,882 Planning
Varadevu Ultra Mega Power Project Stage I Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Corporation (APGENCO) 1600 9,461,921 Early development
VBF Ferro Alloys Bodepalli plant VBC Ferro Alloys 120 709,644 Planning
Vijayawada Thermal Power Station (IGCC) Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Corporation (APGENCO) 182 1,076,294 IGCC Early development 2014
Vijayawada Thermal Power Station expansion Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Corporation (APGENCO) 800 4,730,961 Planning
Vikas Power thermal plant Vikas Power 540 3,193,398 Planning
Vizag Thermal Power Plant Hinduja National Power Corporation 1040 6,150,249 Construction 2013
Welspun Andhra Pradesh project Welspun Energy 1320 7,806,085 Supercritical Early development

Opposition

July 2010: Resistance against Nagarjuna Construction Company Sompeta Thermal Plant

July 2010: Protesters beaten with lathis by riot police in Srikakulam
60-year-old fisherman G. Krishnamurti mortally wounded in Srikakulam

On July 14, 2010, police in Adhra Pradesh's Srikakulam district fired on farmers and fisherman protesting a 2,640 MW coal plant under construction by Nagarjuna Construction Company (NCC), killing two fishermen. In addition, 150 people were injured, including 45 policemen, during clashes between protesters and police. In the wake of the violence, police were deployed in about a dozen villages and banned assembly by more than five persons.[2]

The two fishermen killed were G. Joga Rao of Lakkavaram and G. Krishnamurthy (60) of Palasapuram. A fact-finding team headed by former Orissa high court judge P. K. Mishra issued the following account of the shootings:[3]

"The firing was suddenly done from inside a police van on the Sompeta-Baruva road, on either side of which the fields are located. The police van started moving towards Sompeta, while the man inside continued firing from a close range. The bullets hit the victims above waist level, except two who were hit on the thigh and the ankle. Two persons--G. Joga Rao of Lakkavaram and Krishnamurthy of Plasapuram--died on the spot and five others, including a cameraman of a local television channel, sustained bullet injuries."

One blogger described the "crony capitalism" behind the project as follows:[4]

"[This project] is being developed by Nagarjuna Constructions and it has on its board of directors the esteemed presence of P. Abraham who served as Chairman of EAC (Hydroelectric) and who in the same position approved environmental clearances for various projects which he was himself promoting as a director. He also sits on the board of companies promoted by those who promote the Kakarapalli project. Some of the promoters are marquee names in the Telugu press by now, namely Karvy’s Mr MS Ramakrishna and Matrix Prasad. Mr. P. Abraham also graces the director position in GVK, Lanco group and half a dozen other groups. The world is indeed a small place now. You run into the same names every day. Long live crony capitalism."

February 2011: Resistance against Bhavanapadu Thermal Power Project

February 2011: Srikakulam village turns in a war zone

On February 28, 2011, in a set of clashes sparked by construction of Bhavanapadu Thermal Power Project by East Coast Energy, police in Srikakulam fired into villagers, killing two people and injuring nearly 25 others. The plant at the center of the violence was in the same district as the coal plant where two people were killed the previous July. The dead were identified as Sirapu Yerraiah (36) of Sirapuvani Peta and J. Nageswara Rao (35) of Akashalakkavaram. At least two of the injured were hit at close range with rubber bullets. Police used guns, teargas, and lathis against villagers, who used stones and sticks. After police threw smoke bombs in Vadditandra village, 50 houses were gutted. A police jeep was burned by villagers.[5] One blogger wrote that the project was a product of "crony capitalism":[6]

The 2640 MW Bhavanapadu coal-based thermal power plant near Kakarapalli is being developed by East Coast Energy Private Limited (ECEPL). If you look out for the promoters of this company in their website, you would find that Athena Energy Ventures Pvt Ltd (AEVPL), AIP Power Pvt Ltd (AIP) and PTC India Financial Services Ltd are among them. All these 3 promote another company Athena Demwe Power Limited for a hydro-electric project in Arunchal Pradesh. If you look at the board of directors of this company, you find a certain Mr. A. Balraj. Mr Balraj is a retired IAS officer and more interestingly, the chairman of the Expert Appraisal Committee (EAC), the same which recommended the environmental clearance for the Kakarapalli!

The following details of this Environmental clearance are available on the website of Ministry of Environment & Forests.[7]

  • Project No: No:J- 13011/36/ 2008-IA II(T)
  • Project Name: 2640 MW Bhavanapadu TPP near Kakrapalli Village
  • District:Sri Kakulam
  • Village:no
  • Company:M/s East Coast Energy Pvt. Ltd.
  • Application for EC received: 18/03/2008
  • EC Approved: 09/04/2009

October 2011: Protesters injured during public hearing

Protesters confront police at hearing in Ankulapaturu village

On Oct. 3, 2011, hundreds of villagers led by Jana Vignana Vedika (JVV) and its affiliated unions protested an environmental public hearing by the Pollution Control Board (PCB) regarding the 350 MW Ankulapatur power station phase 1 at Ankulapaturu village in Sri Potti Sriramulu Nellore district.

The public hearing was for land acquisition for the power project. Disagreement broke out between those in attendance, and protesters say they were then attacked and beaten by police, with several protestors suffering injuries. The Joint Collector Saurabh Gaur walked away without giving any orders either to the police to withdraw nor giving any declaration regarding the status of the public hearing.

The proposed plant, sponsored by VSF Projects, will use 1,200 acres near Ankulapaturu village of Chillakur mandal in Gudur division in the district. Andhra Pradesh Civil Liberties Committee (APCLC) district secretary Ellanki Venkateswarlu said locals in Ankulapaturu and the neighbouring villages were opposing the plant, as existing power projects in the area are already creating health hazards.[8]

At the hearing, project opponent Vijayakumar, was beaten by police. Vijayakumar is a doctor and an activist with Jana Vigyana Vedika a people's science organisation. An charge of attempted murder was registered against inspector Ram Babu under section 307 of the IPC. Opponents of the plant charged that the environmental impact assessment prepared by the company suppressed the impacts of the plant on the ten surrounding villages, which are mostly inhabited by landless Scheduled Tribe (ST) or small farmers belonging to Scheduled Caste (SC) and Other Backward Classes (OBC), and that the plant will be located in the middle of a wetland surrounded by shrimp farms. According to one local leader, about 700 people walked seven to eight kilometres to participate in the hearing after their tractors were blocked by police. At the hearing, sponsored by the Andhra Pradesh Pollution Control Board, participation was limited to 20-30 people who allegedly were hired by the company to speak. After Vijayakumar asked those opposing the project to raise their hands, police began lathicharging, and Vijayakumar was allegedly strangled by company goons before being rescued by supporters.[9]

Articles and resources

References

  1. John Vidal, "Andhra Pradesh at the forefront of Indian 'coal rush'" Guardian, July 14, 2011.
  2. "Srikakulam still tense after police firing," The Siasat Daily, July 15, 2010
  3. "Fishermen killed as cops open fire in Srikakulam," India Today, July 28, 2010
  4. "How Crony Capitalism Lead to the Kakarapalli tragedy," The Argumentatitve Indian, March 1, 2011
  5. K. Srinivasa Rao, "2 killed, 25 hurt in police firing in Kakarapalli," The Hindu, March 1, 2011
  6. "How Crony Capitalism Lead to the Kakarapalli tragedy," The Argumentatitve Indian, March 1, 2011
  7. "How Crony Capitalism Lead to the Kakarapalli tragedy," The Argumentatitve Indian, March 1, 2011
  8. "Public hearing on power plant stalled" The Hindu, Oct. 4, 2011.
  9. M Suchitra, "Public hearing for thermal power plant in Andhra Pradesh turns violent," DownToEarth.org, October 10, 2011

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