Indian River Power Station

From SourceWatch
Jump to: navigation, search

This article is part of the Coal Issues portal on SourceWatch, a project of CoalSwarm and the Center for Media and Democracy. See here for help on adding material to CoalSwarm.

Learn more from the Center for Media and Democracy's research on climate change.

Indian River Power Station is a coal-fired power station owned and operated by NRG Energy near Millsboro, Delaware in southern Delaware on a 1,170 acre site. The plant consists of four coal-fired electric steam units (Units 1 through 4) and one 15 megawatt (MW) combustion turbine, bringing total plant capacity to approximately 740 MW.

Loading map...

Death and disease attributable to fine particle pollution from Indian River Power Station

In 2010, Abt Associates issued a study commissioned by the Clean Air Task Force, a nonprofit research and advocacy organization, quantifying the deaths and other health effects attributable to fine particle pollution from coal-fired power plants.[1] The study found that over 13,000 deaths and tens of thousands of cases of chronic bronchitis, acute bronchitis, asthma-related episodes and asthma-related emergency room visits, congestive heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, dysrhythmia, ischemic heart disease, chronic lung disease, pneumonia each year are attributable to fine particle pollution from U.S. coal-fired power plants. Fine particle pollution is formed from a combination of soot, acid droplets, and heavy metals formed from sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and soot. Among those particles, the most dangerous are the smallest (smaller than 2.5 microns), which are so tiny that they can evade the lung's natural defenses, enter the bloodstream, and be transported to vital organs. Impacts are especially severe among the elderly, children, and those with respiratory disease. Low-income and minority populations are disproportionately impacted as well, due to the tendency of companies to avoid locating power plants upwind of affluent communities.

The table below estimates the death and illness attributable to the Indian River Power Station. Abt assigned a value of $7,300,000 to each 2010 mortality, based on a range of government and private studies. Valuations of illnesses ranged from $52 for an asthma episode to $440,000 for a case of chronic bronchitis.[2]

Table 1: Death and disease attributable to fine particle pollution from the Indian River Power Station

Type of Impact Annual Incidence Valuation
Deaths 68 $490,000,000
Heart attacks 120 $13,000,000
Asthma attacks 1,100 57,000
Hospital admissions 54 $1,200,000
Chronic bronchitis 41 $18,000,000
Asthma ER visits 47 $17,000

Source: "Find Your Risk from Power Plant Pollution," Clean Air Task Force interactive table, accessed February 2011

History

Units 1 and 2 are each 80 MW of capacity and were placed in service in 1957 and 1959, respectively. Unit 3 is 155 MW of capacity and was placed in service in 1970, while Unit 4 is 410 MW of capacity and was placed in service in 1980. Units 1, 2, 3 and 4 are equipped with selective non-catalytic reduction systems, for the reduction of NOx emissions. All four units are equipped with electrostatic precipitators to remove fly ash from the flue gases as well as low NOx burners with over fired air to control NOx emissions and activated carbon injection systems to control mercury. Units 1, 2 and 3 are fueled with eastern bituminous coal, while Unit 4 is fueled with low sulfur compliance coal.

Pursuant to a consent order dated September 25, 2007, between NRG and the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, or DNREC, NRG agreed to operate the units in a manner that would limit the emissions of NOx, sulfur dioxide, and mercury. Further, the Company agreed to mothball unit 2 by May 1, 2010, and unit 1 by May 1, 2011, and has notified PJM of the plan to mothball these units. In the absence of the appropriate control technology installed at this facility, Units 3 and 4 totaling approximately 565 MW, could not operate beyond December 31, 2011, per terms of the consent order. On February 3, 2010, the Company together with DNREC announced a proposed plan to retire the 155 MW unit 3 by December 31, 2013. The plan, subject to definitive documentation, extends the operable period of the plant two years beyond the December 31, 2011 date and avoids the incremental cost of control technology. The 410 MW unit 4 is not affected by this proposal, and in 2009, the Company began construction to install selective catalytic reduction systems, scrubbers and fabric filters on this unit. These controls are scheduled to be operational at the end of 2011. [3] [4]

Plant Data

  • Owner: Indian River Power LLC
  • Parent Company: NRG Energy
  • Plant Nameplate Capacity: 782 MW (Megawatts)
  • Units and In-Service Dates: 82 MW (1957), 82 MW (1959), 177 MW (1970), 442 MW (1980)
  • Location: 29416 Powerplant Rd., Millsboro, DE 19966
  • GPS Coordinates: 38.585556, -75.234722
  • Coal Consumption: 1,701,673 tons/year (2007)[5]

According to the documentary “Fuente de la Electricidad” by Wesley College student Mike Short, the Indian River Power Plant burns about 72 rail cars full of coal, or 7,200 tons (14.4 million pounds) of coal, in a typical day. (2,628,000 tons/year)

  • Coal Source: Arch Coal Ragland Loadout, Long Fork, Sydney Coal Prep Plant.[6] Units 1, 2 and 3 are fueled with eastern bituminous coal, while Unit 4 is fueled with low sulfur compliance coal. [7]
  • Coal Ash Production: 281,000 tons estimated annual production (2008)[8]

172,000 tons/year (2007)[9]

State Plant Owner/ Operator County Year Tons of Coal Waste Fly Ash Total Bottom Ash Total
Delaware Indian River Generating Station (NRG) NRG Energy Sussex 2005 172,000 160,900 11,100

[10]

  • Number of Employees: 170 [11]

Higher cancer rates near plant

In January 2011, it was reported that the Delaware Division of Public Health did a study examining the number of cancer cases in a six ZIP code area around the plant. The areas examined were Dagsboro, Frankford, Georgetown, Millsboro, Ocean View and Selbyville. The Division study showed an incidence of 553.9 cancer cases per 100,000 residents of the area between 2000 and 2004, compared with the Delaware state rate of 501.3, and the U.S. rate of 473.6 cancer cases per 100,000 residents, making the rate of cancer cases in the area 17 percent higher than the national average, and suggesting a possible correlation to the plant.[12]

Drinking water contaminated with toxic hexavalent chromium found at Indian River site

A report released by EarthJustice and the Sierra Club in early February 2011 stated that there are many health threats associated with a toxic cancer-causing chemical found in coal ash waste called hexavalent chromium. The report specifically cited 29 sites in 17 states where the contamination was found. The information was gathered from existing EPA data on coal ash and included locations in Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Minnesota, Massachusetts, North Carolina, North Dakota, Nevada, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virgina and Wisconsin. In Delaware the Indian River Power Station in Millsboro where chromium was reportedl.[13]

According to EPA data, the Indian River coal ash site is an unlined landfill that is closed. Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) was reported at the site above 211 ppb (parts per billion) - 10,500 times the proposed California drinking water goals and 2.11 times above the federal drinking water standard.[13][14][15][16][17]

As a press release about the report read:

Hexavalent chromium first made headlines after Erin Brockovich sued Pacific Gas & Electric because of poisoned drinking water from hexavalent chromium. Now new information indicates that the chemical has readily leaked from coal ash sites across the U.S. This is likely the tip of the iceberg because most coal ash dump sites are not adequately monitored.[18]

Coal Ash Disposal

  • Burton Island - Burton Island was owned by Delmarva Power and Light Company (“DP&L”), which used Burton Island to dispose of coal ash waste from DP&L’s coal-fired Indian River Generating Station’s (“IRGS”) from 1957 through 1979. In 1979 DP&L began disposing the coal ash into an on-site industrial landfill with state approval. The Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control was not created until 1970 and there was no authority to regulate solid waste until 1974. [19]

From 1957 to 1980, DP&L sluiced ash from the coal burners onto the eastern 2/3 of Burton Island. Berms were built from ash and dredge spoils. Excess water ran into Indian River or Island Creek. This resulted in the elevation of the ground surface by about 15± feet over roughly 144 acres of the island, and the wholesale conversion of tidal marshes and flats to upland.[20]

“Fly ash was used to construct a perimeter berm system. Berms were constructed at a height of approximately 20 feet, consisting of approximately a 4 foot base of soil, 14 feet of fly ash, and a 2 foot cap of bottom ash. By the mid 1960’s the system of berms and access roadways was completed on the eastern end of the island.”[21]

On July 30th, 2008, DNREC Secretary John Hughes issued an order approving the “Final Plan of Remedial Action for Burton Island Ash Disposal Area (Operable Units 1 and 3)". The landfill consists of 3 operable units ((An Operable Unit is a term used to describe a number of separate activities undertaken as part of a Superfund site cleanup)) (OUs) as follows:

OU1: shoreline, intertidal zone, and vicinity within the footprint of the portion of the erosion control project surrounding the landfill.

OU2: the landfill/land areas landward (inside) of the footprint of the erosion control project.

OU3: the sub-tidal sediments and the waters seaward (outside) of the footprint of the erosion control project.[19]

The order approves the following actions be taken:

OU1: NRG and Indian River Power, LLC (IRPLLC) intend to install erosion control/bank stabilization measures along OU1. The erosion control measures consist of:

  • Installation of armor stone and large concrete blocks underlain by geotextile (synthetic fabric) along the shorelines of Burton Island.
  • Enhancement or creation of tidal marsh along shoreline areas where wave energies are sufficiently low to permit its survival.

OU3: NRG and IRPLLC intend to take no further action with respect to OU3.[19]

The Plan does not address Operable Unit 2 (“OU2”), which is the area where DP&L disposed of the coal ash. OU2 was not considered in the Plan because this area is still the subject of an ongoing Department environmental remediation investigation, including all storm water and groundwater issues. The July 23, 2008, Order No. 2008-A-0032 at page 2 states the investigation would be completed in 2008.

OU2, because of its size and heterogeneity, will need to be investigated in greater detail before a Feasibility Study can be conducted and a remedy selected. In April 2009, planning for the OU2 RI is reported in progress and field work was expected to start later in 2009. [22]

A plan of remediation was proposed for OU2 in January 2013 and was adopted October 8, 2013. http://www.dnrec.delaware.gov/Info/Documents/Secretarys%20Order%20No.%202013-WH-0044.pdf

Final Plan of Remedial Action for Burton Island Ash Disposal Area (Operable Units 1 and 3) August 5, 2008 http://www.dnrec.state.de.us/dnrec2000/divisions/awm/sirb/Final_Plans/GMD08027.pdf

Proposed Plan of Remedial Action for Burton Island Ash Disposal Area (Operable Units 1 and 3) April 2008 http://www.dnrec.state.de.us/DNREC2000/Divisions/AWM/sirb/Proposed_Plans/Proposed%20Plan%20Burton%20Island.pdf

Burton Island Ash Disposal Area Presentation http://www.awm.delaware.gov/SIRB/Documents/Burton%20I%20overview%20for%20public%20090428.pdf

  • Phase I Landfill - The 46-acre Phase I coal ash landfill (Permit No. SW-07/01, issued January 24, 2007) is located approximately one-half mile southwest of the power station. Construction of Phase I was initiated in 1979 and coal ash disposal began in 1980. The current permitted height of the Phase I landfill is 100 feet MSL. The Phase I coal ash landfill facility includes a sedimentation basin for collecting surface water run-off from the landfill area and haul road used for transporting ash from the power station to the landfill. [23]
  • Plase II landfill - Permit Application approved September 4, 2008.[24]

The Phase II landfill lies immediately west of, and contiguous to, the Phase I landfill and will consist of two new cells Cell 1 (12.7 acres) and Cell 2 (15.7 acres) shown on Drawing 2. The two cells are estimated to provide approximately 2 million cubic yards (cy) of disposal volume. Based on an estimated compacted density of 1.12 tons per cy, this volume could provide disposal for approximately 2.2 million tons of ash.[23] The Phase II landfill began operations September 17, 2010.

Environmental Damages - Burton Island

Contamination of groundwater, sediments and surface water in the Indian River and Island Creek has occured from a coal ash landfill on Burton Island. Levels of arsenic, chromium, and thallium in on-site groundwater exceeded federal primary drinking water standards (“maximum contaminant levels” or “MCLs”). Off-site concentrations of aluminum and iron in Island Creek exceeded EPA water quality criteria. Levels of aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, chromium, iron, manganese, selenium, thallium, and vanadium exceeded Delaware Uniform Risk-Based Standards (URS). Average concentrations of arsenic exceeded the URS in soil/ash; groundwater; shoreline sediments and surface water. State Action: Voluntary Clean Plan and Remedial Investigation and Ecological Assessment. [25]

Groundwater concentrations were measured at eight soil boring sites on Burton Island in May 2007. Bold results exceed MCL or URS.

Constituent MCL ug/L Minimum Detected ug/L Location of Minimum Maximun Detected ug/L Location of Maximum Frequency of Detections Average ug/L Geometric Mean ug/L Median ug/L
Aluminum 200 URS 1,230 SB-6 70,600 SB-1 8/8 25,671 14,578 20,850
Antimony 6 10.8 SB-1 10.8 SB-1 1/8 3.89 3.42 2.90
Arsenic 10 20.4 SB-8 1,450 SB-1 8/8 456 255 349
Barium 2,000 34.1 SB-4 1,750 SB-1 8/8 405 189 260
Cadmium 5 0.59 SB-1 1.6 SB-7 2/8 0.424 0.297 0.200
Chromium 100 3 SB-6 211 SB-2 8/8 71.6 36.6 51.3
Iron 300 URS 14,500 SB-6 71,400 SB-1 8/8 34,013 28,551 23,900
Lead 15 5.9 SB-4 102 SB-1 8/8 32.9 22.4 23.9
Mercury 2 0.16 SB-5/8 4.8 SB-1 5/8 0.775 0.206 0.160
Maganese 50 URS 72.3 SB-5 2,330 SB-1 8/8 565 331 364
Selenium 50 6.7 SB-5 93.9 SB-1 4/8 16.4 5.90 4.4
Thallium 2 7.5 SB-1 8.4 SB-7 2/8 3.75 3.19 2.35
Vanadium 26 URS 8.1 SB-4 372 SB-1 7/8 87.1 33.5 41.8

(Source: Facility Evaluation Report, Indian River Generating Station, Burton Island Old Ash Landfill Millsboro, DE 19966 Site Number DE-1399, Shaw Environmental, Inc., March 2008)

DNREC conducted ambient water quality testing at Indian River bouy stations from August 1998 until Febuary 2008. Testing resumed in November 2011. Ambient water quality criteria of 10 ug/L arsenic was found to be exceed in four sample sets between 1998 & 2008, and four more since 2011.

STORET Site Date Arsenic ug/L
306161 IRB38 Aug-98 14.7
306341 ICKU Aug-98 14.5
306131 IRB26 Aug-98 14.1
306121 IRB20 Aug-98 10.4
306321 IR Inlet Aug-98 18
306321 IR Inlet Sep-02 13.2
306121 IRB20 Sep-02 11.9
306131 IRB26 Sep-02 11.6
306161 IRB38 Sep-02 11.4
306331 ICK Sep-02 10.5
306341 ICKU Sep-02 10.5
306181 IRB49 Mar-05 13
306181 IRB49 Aug-07 10.5
306121 IRB20 Apr-12 10.6
306321 IR Inlet Apr-12 28
306121 IRB20 Dec-12 13
306321 IR Inlet Dec-12 14.7
306121 IRB20 Jan-12 12.9
306321 IR Inlet Mar-13 12.6
306321 IR Inlet May-13 10.0

Source: http://iaspub.epa.gov/storpubl/DW_resultcriteria_station

The facility is required in its permit to analyze the waters of Island Creek at Station SG-2 adjacent to the Phase I/II Landfill. Station SG-2 consists of a staff gage in Island Creek near the region of groundwater discharge from the Phase I/II Landfill site. Samples are to be taken on the out going tide as per the permit. Specific numerical acute criteria are applied as one-hour average concentrations not to be exceeded more than once in any three-year period. Specific numerical chronic criteria are applied as four-day average concentrations not to be exceeded more than once in any three-year period. [26]

Parameter (ug/L) 4/24/2007 10/30/2007 4/15/2008 2/11/2009 4/17/2009 10/19/2009 4/20/2010 10/11/2010 4/5/2011 10/5/2011 Fish + Water Ingestion Marine Chronic Criterion Marine Acute Criterion
Arsenic (total) 19 9 5 30 <15 46 <30 42 4 27 10 36 As(III) 69 As (III)
Selenium 17 8 7 120 54 160 110 160 13 14 50 71 290
Iron 50 100 50 <60 84 <180 360 <300 <120 <120 - - -
Sulfate mg/L 608 1613 1241 1570 632 1260 1360 2330 1150 1890 - - -
Parameter (ug/L) 2/2012 4/2012 2/2013 4/2013 2/2014 4/2014 2/2015 4/2015 2/2016 4/2016 Fish + Water Ingestion Marine Chronic Criterion Marine Acute Criterion
Arsenic (total) 4.8 43 10 36 As(III) 69 As (III)
Selenium 28 15 50 71 290
Iron <600 499 - - -
Sulfate mg/L 1,860 2,570 - - -

Source: DNREC Records

Environmental Damages - Phase I/II Ash Mound

The Phase I & II landfills have a groundwater monitoring program. Well cluster 326 is on the bank of Island Creek adjacent to the landfill. Well B is screened from 15' to 25'. Well 326C is screened from 30' to 40'. It detected 2 ug/L arsenic 4/24/97 and 7 ug/L arsenic 10/22/97. Well 326D was dug 10/26/98 and screened at 40' to 50'. No Arsenic contamination was again detected at this well cluster until 2009.

Well # Depth (ft) Surface/MSL 4/2008 2/2009 4/2009 10/2009 4/2010 10/2010 1/2011 4/2011 7/2011 10/2011 4/2012
326B 25 / -14.5 <2 ug/L As 3.3 ug/L As 3.3 ug/L As <6 ug/L As <3 ug/L As 5.9 ug/L As 7.0 ug/L As <3 ug/L As <6 ug/L As 4.2 ug/L As 5.2 ug/L As
326C 40 / -29.5 <2 ug/L As 10 ug/L As 14 ug/L As 12 ug/L As 11 ug/L As 7.7 ug/L As 10 ug/L As <3 ug/L As 4.9 ug/L As 7.3 ug/L As 13 ug/L As
326D 50 / -39.5 <2 ug/L As <3 ug/L As <3 ug/L As <6 ug/L As <3 ug/L As <3 ug/L As <6 ug/L As <3 ug/L As <6 ug/L As <3 ug/L As <3 ug/L As


Well # Depth (ft) Surface/MSL 10/2012 2/2013 4/2013 10/2013 2/2014 4/2014 2/2015 4/2015 10/2015 2/2016 4/2016
326B 25 / -14.5 <3 ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As
326C 40 / -29.5 39 ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As
326D 50 / -39.5 <3 ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As


Well # Arsenic MCL ug/L First detection Arsenic ug/L Maximun Arsenic Detected ug/L Date of Max
326B 10 2/09/2009 3.3 39 4/2012
326C 10 4/24/97 2 14 4/13/2009


Well # Depth (ft) Surface/MSL 4/2008 2/2009 4/2009 10/2009 4/2010 10/2010 1/2011 4/2011 7/2011 10/2011 4/2012
326B 25 / -14.5 <2 ug/L Se 9.2 ug/L Se 9.0 ug/L Se <10 ug/L Se <5.0 ug/L Se 8.9 ug/L Se 17 ug/L Se <5.0 ug/L Se <10 ug/L Se <5.0 ug/L Se <5.0 ug/L Se
326C 40 / -29.5 <2 ug/L Se 37 ug/L Se 56 ug/L Se 46 ug/L Se 48 ug/L Se <10 ug/L Se 39 ug/L Se 33 ug/L Se 27 ug/L Se 9.2 ug/L Se <5.0 ug/L Se
326D 50 / -39.5 <2 ug/L Se <5.0 ug/L Se 5.3 ug/L Se <10 ug/L Se <5.0 ug/L Se 9.5 ug/L Se <10 ug/L Se <5.0 ug/L Se <10 ug/L Se <5.0 ug/L Se <5.0 ug/L Se


Well # Depth (ft) Surface/MSL 10/2012 2/2013 4/2013 10/2013 2/2014 4/2014 2/2015 4/2015 10/2015 2/2016 4/2016
326B 25 / -14.5 <5 ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se
326C 40 / -29.5 20 ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se
326D 50 / -39.5 <5 ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se


Well # Selenium MCL ug/L First detection Selenium ug/L Maximum Selenium Detected ug/L Date of Max
326B 50 2/09/2009 9.2 9.2 2/09/2009
326C 50 2/09/2009 37 56 4/13/2009
326D 50 4/14/2009 5.3 5.3 4/14/2009


New Well Cluster 328 added in 2010 west of cluster 326

Well # Depth (ft) Surface/MSL 10/2010 1/2011 2/2011 3/2011 4/2011 2/2012 4/2012
328C 28 8.8 ug/L As 6.9 ug/L As <3 ug/L As <6 ug/L As <3 ug/L As <3 ug/L As ug/L As
328B 48 <3 ug/L As <6 ug/L As <3 ug/L As <6 ug/L As <3 ug/L As 6.9 ug/L As <3 ug/L As
328A 58 3.1 ug/L As <6 ug/L As <3 g/L As 15 ug/L As 4.2 ug/L As 5.6 ug/L As 4.6 ug/L As
Well # Depth (ft) Surface/MSL 10/2010 1/2011 2/2011 3/2011 4/2011 2/2012 4/2012
328C 28 33 ug/L Se 46 ug/L Se 20 ug/L Se 42 ug/L Se 23 ug/L Se <5 ug/L Se 7.3 ug/L Se
328B 48 9.4 ug/L Se 10 ug/L Se 6.5 ug/L Se <10 ug/L Se <5 ug/L Se 5.4 ug/L Se 8.2 ug/L Se
328A 58 12 ug/L Se 14 ug/L Se 7.1 ug/L Se 80 ug/L Se 57 ug/L Se <5 ug/L Se 5.8 ug/L Se


New Well Cluster 327 added in 2010 west of cluster 328 and 326.

Well # Depth (ft) Surface/MSL 10/2010 1/2011 2/2011 3/2011 4/2011 2/2012 4/2012
327C 29 12 ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As
327B 45 10 ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As
327A 61 <3 ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As
Well # Depth (ft) Surface/MSL 10/2010 1/2011 2/2011 3/2011 4/2011 2/2012 4/2012
327C 29 6.8 ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se
327B 45 14 ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se
327A 61 <10 ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se

Well cluster 103 is located in close proximity to the Phase I landfill. Well 103B completed 10/23/81 is screened 38' to 48', and Well C is screened 22' to 32'. Wells 103B and 103C have detected arsenic for a number of years. Well A in this cluster is screened 49' to 59' and first detects Arsenic in 2009. Well 103CR is screened 21' to 31'.

Well # Depth (ft) Surface/MSL 4/2008 2/2009 4/2009 10/2009 4/2010 10/2010 1/2011 4/2011 10/2011
103C 32 / -12.5 6 ug/L As 110 ug/L As 110ug/L As 140 ug/L As 200 ug/L As 140 ug/L As 140 ug/L As 130 ug/L As 150 ug/L As
103CR 31/-14.7 36 ug/L As 19 ug/L As 13 ug/L As 44 ug/L As
103B 48 / -28.5 <2 ug/L As 12 ug/L As 19 ug/L As 20 ug/L As 16 ug/L As 17 ug/L As 11 ug/L As
103A 59 / -39.5 <2 ug/L As 3.8 ug/L As 6 ug/L As 10 ug/L As 4.1 ug/L As 9.2 ug/L As 6.2 ug/L As
Well # Depth (ft) Surface/MSL 4/17/2012 10/16/2012
103C 32 / -12.5 86 ug/L As 160 ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As
103CR 31/-14.7 19 ug/L As 73 ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As
103B 48 / -28.5 <3 ug/L As 7.9 ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As
103A 59 / -39.5 ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As ug/L As ug/L Ar ug/L As ug/L As


Well # Arsenic MCL ug/L First detection Arsenic ug/L Maximum Arsenic Detected ug/L Date of Max
103C 10 1/13/1983 4 200 4/21/2010
103CR 10 110/2010 36 73 4/2012
103B 10 5/10/1988 3 20 10/21/2009
103A 10 2/02/2009 3.8 10 10/21/2009


Well # Depth (ft) Surface/MSL 4/2008 2/2009 4/2009 10/2009 4/2010 10/2010 1/2011 4/2011 7/2011
103C 32 / -12.5 <2 ug/L Se 49 ug/L Se 50 ug/L Se 67 ug/L Se 51 ug/L Se 12 ug/L Se 44 ug/L Se 13 ug/L Se 5.9 ug/L Se
103CR 31/-14.7 13 ug/L Se 40 ug/L Se 9.8 ug/L Se 6.4 ug/L Se
103B 48 / -28.5 <2 ug/L Se 50 ug/L Se 71 ug/L Se 71 ug/L Se 62 ug/L Se 17 ug/L Se 9 ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se
103A 59 / -39.5 <2 ug/L Se 19 ug/L Se 27 ug/L Se 40 ug/L Se 20 ug/L Se 18 ug/L Se 11 ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se


Well # Depth (ft) Surface/MSL 4/2012 10/2012
103C 32 / -12.5 5.9 ug/L Se 11 ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se
103CR 31/-14.7 12 ug/L Se 46 ug/L Se
103B 48 / -28.5 22 ug/L Se 55 ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se
103A 59 / -39.5 3.1 ug/L Se 3.7 ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se ug/L Se
Well # Selenium MCL ug/L First detection Selenium ug/L Maximun Selenium Detected ug/L Date of Max
103C 50 2/02/2009 49 67 10/21/2009
103CR 50 10/2013 12 46 10/21/2009
103B 50 2/09/2009 50 71 4/16 & 10/21/2009
103A 50 2/02/2009 19 40 10/21/2009

(Source: DNREC records)

Emissions Data

Constituent 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Mercury Stack - lbs 189 172 164 117 122 70 90 8 8 4 -
Mercury Landfill - lbs 52 33 33 46 92 57 20 89 87 117 -
Arsenic Landfill - lbs - 29,760 32,010 - - - - - - - -
Arsenic Stack - lbs - 500-999 1000 - - - - - - - -
Arsenic Fugitive - lbs - 1-10 1-10 - - - - - - - -
Lead Landfill - lbs 25,283 23,062 23,804 12,756 27,058 17,251 5,347 10,490 10,367 6,291 -
Lead Landfill (offsite)- lbs - - - 14,367 - - - - - - -
Lead Stack - lbs 596 638 797 679 607 107 312 216 82 74 -
Lead Fugitive - lbs 0.37 0.37 0.46 0.42 0.58 0.15 89 0.3 - - -
Hydrochloric Acid Stack - lbs 3,600,000 2,800,000 2,600,000 2,900,000 2,500,000 1,511,338 2,300,000 1,500,000 170,000 114,394 -
Sulfuric Acid Stack - lbs 130,000 110,000 100,000 110,000 94,000 61,484 30,000 36,000 11,000 10,910 -

[27]

Mercury emissions are limited by Delaware Regulation 1146 to 1460 ounces (91.25 pounds) 2009-2012, and 580 ounces (35.25 pounds) 2013 and beyond.[28] After the planned unit closings, only Unit 4 would be operational in 2014 and have an emission limit of 278 ounces or 17.375 pounds mercury.

Under a consent order settling litigation of 1146, NGR shall operate Unit 4 in such a manner that SO2 emissions do not exceed 0.20 lbs/mmBtu on a 24-hr rolling basis, and that NOx emissions do not exceed 0.10 lbs/mmBtu on a 24-hr rolling basis by December 31, 2011.


State Facility ID# Unit Year Op. hrs Months SO2 Tons NOx Rate(lb/mmBtu) NOx Tons CO2 Tons Heat Input(mmBtu)
DE Indian River 594 1 2006 6,095 12 2,741.5 0.35 771.1 433,208.0 4,222,331
DE Indian River 594 2 2006 7,061 12 3,538.7 0.38 1,010.6 514,193.8 5,011,688
DE Indian River 594 3 2006 7,097 12 5,867.2 0.32 1,415.5 883,299.5 8,609,175
DE Indian River 594 4 2006 6,696 12 8,557.9 0.34 3,173.1 1,741,767.2 16,976,283
DE Indian River 594 10 2006 31 6 0.0 0.61 1.8 0.0 5,889
Facility Total 2006 20,705.3 5,472.1 3,572,468.5


State Facility ID# Unit Year Op. hrs Months SO2 Tons NOx Rate(lb/mmBtu) NOx Tons CO2 Tons Heat Input(mmBtu)
DE Indian River 594 1 2008 7,040 12 3,108.8 0.31 646.7 420,280.5 4,096,292
DE Indian River 594 2 2008 7,489 12 3,341.3 0.29 686.9 463,496.9 4,517,469
DE Indian River 594 3 2008 7,035 12 6,264.7 0.33 1,370.7 841,516.9 8,201,848
DE Indian River 594 4 2008 7,955 12 11,928.2 0.32 3,873.3 2,383,631.5 23,232,281
DE Indian River 594 10 2008 13 6 0.0 0.61 0.9 0.0 2,968
Facility Total 2008 26,643 6,578.5 4,108,925.8


State Facility ID# Unit Year Op. hrs Months SO2 Tons NOx Rate(lb/mmBtu) NOx Tons CO2 Tons Heat Input(mmBtu)
DE Indian River 594 1 2009 2,231 12 886.9 0.23 157.5 128,773.6 1,255,120
DE Indian River 594 2 2009 2,507 12 959.9 0.23 169.1 139,649.6 1,361,116
DE Indian River 594 3 2009 5,509 12 4,176.8 0.25 746.0 546,514.9 5,326,661
DE Indian River 594 4 2009 6,415 12 8,205.9 0.27 2,161.6 1,530,135.6 14,913,660
DE Indian River 594 10 2009 19 6 0.61 1.3 4,252
Facility Total 2009 14,229.5 2,534.2 2,219,393.7


State Facility ID# Unit Year Op. hrs Months SO2 Tons NOx Rate(lb/mmBtu) NOx Tons CO2 Tons Heat Input(mmBtu)
DE Indian River 594 1 2010 3,597 12 1,533.2 0.25 276.7 221,603.9 2,159,892
DE Indian River 594 2 2010 1,212 9 491.4 0.23 92.4 78,247.5 762,639
DE Indian River 594 3 2010 5,372 12 4,129.4 0.29 935.9 600,244.1 5,850,327
DE Indian River 594 4 2010 5,909 12 7,689.6 0.29 2,131.1 1,441,953.6 14,054,149
DE Indian River 594 10 2010 65 6 0.61 1 3,132
Facility Total 2010 13,843.6 3,437.1 2,342,049.1


State Facility ID# Unit Year Op. hrs Months SO2 Tons NOx Rate(lb/mmBtu) NOx Tons CO2 Tons Heat Input(mmBtu)
DE Indian River 594 1 2011 441 12 176.5 0.23 33.8 27,544.5 268,458
DE Indian River 594 2 2011
DE Indian River 594 3 2011 5,212 12 3,061 0.24 582.7 454,630.4 4,431,117
DE Indian River 594 4 2011 4,989 12 5,957 0.2896 1,736 1,120,255 10,918,657
DE Indian River 594 10 2011 11 5 0.21 0 376
Facility Total 2011 9,194.5 2,236.4 1,602,429.9


State Facility ID# Unit Year Op. hrs Months SO2 Tons NOx Rate(lb/mmBtu) NOx Tons CO2 Tons Heat Input(mmBtu)
DE Indian River 594 3 2012 4022 12 1904.5 0.23 350.6 286,954.1 2,796,814
DE Indian River 594 4 2012 5986 12 692 0.07 399.9 1,215,824.6 11,850,172
DE Indian River 594 10 2012 0
Facility Total 2012 2596.5 750.5 1,502,778.7

Source: http://ampd.epa.gov/ampd

Indian River Power Station Units 1 and 2 scheduled for phase-out

Under a 2007 consent decree reached with the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environment, NRG Energy agreed to shut down Indian River Power Station Unit 2 by May 1, 2010, and Unit 1 by May 1, 2011. Unit 1 is an 82 MW unit built in 1957; Unit 2 is an 82 MW unit built in 1959. The company also agreed to install air pollution controls on Units 3 and 4 by the end of 2011 to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and mercury.[29]

Proposal to phase out Indian River Power Station Unit 3

On February 3, 2010,NRG Energy together with DNREC announced a proposed plan to retire the 155 MW unit 3 by December 31, 2013. The plan, subject to definitive documentation, extends the operable period of the plant two years beyond the December 31, 2011 date and avoids the incremental cost of control technology. The 410 MW unit 4 is not affected by this proposal, and in 2009, the Company began construction to install selective catalytic reduction systems, scrubbers and fabric filters on this unit. These controls are scheduled to be operational at the end of 2011.[30] The plan would replace a previous plan to install pollution controls and continue to operate the plant for decades. According to the DNREC, no permanent jobs are expected to be lost as a result of the shutdown due to attrition, retraining, and redeployment.[29] According to the DNREC, expected environmental benefits of the shutdown include:[29]

  • Elimination of between 30 and 40 billion gallons of cooling water drawn annually from Indian River;
  • Elimination of annual kills of aquatic life including hundreds of thousands blue crabs, millions of bay anchovy, and hundreds of thousands of Atlantic menhaden, Atlantic croaker, winter flounder and weakfish;
  • Reduction by about 1,173 tons annually of nitrogen oxide and 6,252 tons of sulfur dioxide;
  • Elimination of 837,000 tons annually of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide;
  • Reduction in annual fly ash production of between 40,000 and 70,000 tons; and
  • Reduction of mercury emissions by five pounds annually.

Proposal to install controls on Indian River Power Station Unit 4

On February 3, 2010, the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control announced that it will continue with plans to place controls on NRG Energy's Indian River Power Station Unit 4, the largest unit at the Indian River Power Station. The project will cost approximately $360 million and create up to 350 constructions jobs over two years. [29]

Cancellation of proposed fifth unit

Power wholesaler NRG Energy, which owns over 22,000 MW of power-generating plants nationally, planned to add a 630 MW IGCC unit to its four-unit (720 MW total) coal-fired Indian River Power Station. The power would have been sold to retailer Delmarva Power. In May, 2007, the Delaware Public Service Commission and three other state agencies ordered Delmarva to negotiate with Bluewater Wind for a power purchase agreement for an offshore wind project. That order foreclosed the Indian River IGCC project. Green Delaware and Citizens for Clean Power had opposed the expansion of Indian River.[31]

Articles and Resources

Sources

  1. "The Toll from Coal: An Updated Assessment of Death and Disease from America's Dirtiest Energy Source," Clean Air Task Force, September 2010.
  2. "Technical Support Document for the Powerplant Impact Estimator Software Tool," Prepared for the Clean Air Task Force by Abt Associates, July 2010
  3. "NRG ENERGY, INC. - 10-K - 20100223 - BUSINESS"
  4. "Regulation 1146 Concent Order, Sept. 24, 2007"
  5. "Appendix for Regulatory Impact Analysis For EPA’s Proposed RCRA Regulation Of Coal Combustion Residues Generated by the Electric Utility Industry"
  6. "EIA 423 and Schedule 2 of EIA-923," EIA 923 Schedules 2, 2011.
  7. "NRG Energy Inc. 10-K", February 23, 2010.
  8. "Phase II Coal Ash Landfill Design Narrative, Golder Associates Inc., April 2008.
  9. "Appendix for Regulatory Impact Analysis For EPA’s Proposed RCRA Regulation Of Coal Combustion Residues Generated by the Electric Utility Industry"
  10. Natural Resources Defense Council, "Contaminated Coal Waste: data and Projections for Existing and Proposed U.S. Coal Fired Plants", Natural Resources Defense Council, December 2009.
  11. NRG, "IGCC Development In Delaware: Coal Without Compromise", September 15, 2006.
  12. Victor Furman, "Cancer Cluster Linked to Coal?" Press Connects, January 2, 2011.
  13. 13.0 13.1 "EPA’s Blind Spot: Hexavalent Chromium in Coal Ash" Earthjustice & Sierra Club, February 1, 2011.
  14. "Damage Case Report for Coal Compustion Wastes," August 2008
  15. U.S. EPA Proposed Coal Ash Rule, 75 Fed. Reg. 35128
  16. EarthJustice, Environmental Integrity Project, and Sierra Club, "In Harm's Way: Lack of Federal Coal Ash Regulations Endangers Americans and their Environment," August 2010
  17. EarthJustice and Environmental Integrity Project, "Out of Control: Mounting Damages from Coal Ash Waste Sites," May 2010
  18. "Coal ash waste tied to cancer-causing chemicals in water supplies" Alicia Bayer, Examiner.com, February 1, 2011.
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, "Secretary’s Order No. 2008-A-0032 RE: Approval of Final Plan of Remedial Action for Burton Island Ash Disposal Area Units 1 & 3", Office of the Secretary, July 30, 2008.
  20. Greg DeCowsky, "Burton Island Ash Disposal Area: DNREC SIRB Activities, July 2005 to April 2009", DNREC Site Inspection and Restoration Branch, April 2009.
  21. Facility Evaluation Report, Indian River Generating Station, Burton Island Old Ash Landfill Millsboro, DE 19966 Site Number DE-1399, Shaw Environmental, Inc., March 2008.
  22. [1] Burton Island Ash Disposal Area Presentation
  23. 23.0 23.1 NRG Energy, INC, "Phase II Coal Ash Landfill Design Narrative", Golder Associates, April 2008.
  24. Secretary’s Order No. 2008-A-0037: Re: Application of Indian River Power LLC for a Solid Waste Management Facility Permit to Construct and Operate an Industrial Landfill (Phase II) at the Indian River Generating Station near Millsboro, Sussex County", September 4, 2008.
  25. Jeff Stant (Editor and Contributing Author), "Out of Control: Mounting Damages from Coal Ash Waste Sites", Environmental Integrity Project and Earthjustice, February 24, 2010.
  26. "STATE OF DELAWARE SURFACE WATER QUALITY STANDARDS As Amended, July 11, 2004"
  27. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, "TRI Explorer: Chemical Report", acessed May 2010.
  28. "Delaware Regulation 1146"
  29. 29.0 29.1 29.2 29.3 DNRC negotiating permanent shutdown of additional coal unit at Indian River Power Plant, "State of Delaware Press Release, February 3, 2010"
  30. "NRG ENERGY, INC. - 10-K - 20100223 - BUSINESS"
  31. "Stopping the Coal Rush", Sierra Club, accessed December 2007. (This is a Sierra Club list of new coal plant proposals).

Related SourceWatch Articles

External Articles