This article is part of the Center for Media & Democracy's spotlight on global corporations.
Monsanto is considered the mother of agricultural biotechnology. The company produces biotechnology, genomics and herbicides for corn, cotton, oil seeds, and vegetables. It produces genetically altered seeds to tolerate it's flagship product, Roundup. Monsanto also produces Asgrow, DEKALB, Deltapine, and Seminis seeds. Other products have included Agent Orange, the now ubiquitous PCBs, DDT, Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone (rBGH) and Aspartame.
Monsanto is one of the "Big 6" Biotech Corporations, along with BASF, Bayer, Dow Chemical Company, Dupont, and Syngenta (so called because they dominate the agricultural input market -- that is, they own the world’s seed, pesticide and biotechnology industries).
In the fiscal year ending in August of 2010, the company reported sales of approximately 10.5 billion dollars and had 27,600 employees. 
Ties to the American Legislative Exchange Council
A list of ALEC Corporations can be found here.
ALEC is a corporate bill mill. It is not just a lobby or a front group; it is much more powerful than that. Through ALEC, corporations hand state legislators their wishlists to benefit their bottom line. Corporations fund almost all of ALEC's operations. They pay for a seat on ALEC task forces where corporate lobbyists and special interest reps vote with elected officials to approve “model” bills. Learn more at the Center for Media and Democracy's ALECexposed.org, and check out breaking news on our PRWatch.org site.
Overview & History
The Monsanto company was created in 1901 by John Francis Queeny photo and named after his wife, Olga Mendez Monsanto. Since that time, the name Monsanto has become symbolic of the greed, arrogance, scandal and hardball business practices of many multinational corporations. Less well known is that Monsanto was heavily involved in the creation of the first nuclear bomb for the Manhattan Project during WWII via its facilities in Dayton, Ohio. The Dayton Project was headed by Charlie Thomas, Director of Monsanto's Central Research Department. He later became the company's president. ,  Monsanto also operated a nuclear facility for the federal government in Miamisburg, Ohio, called the Mound Project, until the 1980s.
- "In 1967, Monsanto entered into a joint venture with IG Farben. (The) German chemical firm that was the financial core of the Hitler regime, and was the main supplier of Zyklon-B to the German government during the extermination phase of the Holocaust." , 
IG Farben was not dissolved until 2003.  See also pharmaceutical industry. Monsanto was the creator of several attractions in Disney's Tommorrowland. Often they revolved around the the virtues of chemicals and plastics. Their "House of the Future" was constructed entirely of plastic, but biodegradable it was not:
- "After attracting a total of 20 million visitors from 1957 to 1967, Disney finally tore the house down, but discovered it would not go down without a fight. According to Monsanto Magazine, wrecking balls literally bounced off the glass-fiber, reinforced polyester material. Torches, jackhammers, chain saws and shovels did not work. Finally, choker cables were used to squeeze off parts of the house bit by bit to be trucked away."  However another of their synthetic inventions, Astroturf (fake grass), survives.
See also history of Monsanto time line. 
In the Washington Post article (Jan 1, 2002) "Monsanto Hid Decades Of Pollution PCBs Drenched Ala. Town, But No One Was Ever Told" a grim story of Monsanto's treacherous behavior in Anniston Alabama was revealed. It is summed up in this chilling paragraph: "They also know that for nearly 40 years, while producing the now-banned industrial coolants known as PCBs at a local factory, Monsanto Co. routinely discharged toxic waste into a west Anniston creek and dumped millions of pounds of PCBs into oozing open-pit landfills. And thousands of pages of Monsanto documents -- many emblazoned with warnings such as "CONFIDENTIAL: Read and Destroy" -- show that for decades, the corporate giant concealed what it did and what it knew."  
For more see Monsanto's Global Pollution Legacy.
Food Safety Issues
On March 11 2008, 'The World According to Monsanto', by journalist and film maker Marie-Monique Robin, was was aired on French television. The documentary you won't be seeing on American television, revealed that the biotech giant is threatening to destroy the agricultural biodiversity which has served mankind for thousands of years. (right)
Millions Against Monsanto
Between May 1 and May 26, a broad coalition of food, farm, health, public interest, and environmental groups all over the country, joined by leading organic food companies, raised one million dollars to support the California Right to Know Genetically Engineered Food Act, a citizens' ballot initiative, and other state GMO-labeling campaigns. The money was raised in response to efforts by Monsanto and "California Citizens Against Lawsuit Abuse" (CALA) to disuade and confuse more than 90% of California voters who want labels on genetically engineered food. 
Roundup Ready Controversy
(Note: There are a host of other concerns with genetic modification. Issues and statistics in the fast-paced biotech world are ever in flux. The reader is encouraged to visit the other websites below for more and up-to-date info.) Monsanto is considered the Mother of agricultural biotech (1). Their "Roundup Ready" crops have been genetically engineered to allow direct application of the Monsanto herbicide glyphosate allowing farmers to drench both their crops and crop land with the herbicide so as to be able to kill nearby weeds without killing the crops. According to Charles M. Benbrook, an expert in the field:
For more see Monsanto's Roundup Ready Controversy.
Monsanto came under heavy public fire with the development of their "Terminator Technology", a.k.a. "suicide seeds", known technically as V-GURTs (varietal Genetic Use Restriction Technologies) in which the seeds resulting from the first year's planting would be sterile thereby forcing farmers around the world in the Roundup Ready System to buy their seed from them every year rather than saving their best seed for the next years planting, a traditional and economical practice . Seed saving has had the benefit of allowing farmers to continually improve the quality of their crops through careful artificial selection.
Fears were also expressed that Monsanto's terminator genes could spread to wild plants. According to the UN Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, "Cross-fertilising V-GURT containing crops may cause considerable effects in neighbouring crop stands and wild relatives.... The fact that in North America, where large stands of GMO varieties are now grown contamination of non-GMO varieties by GMO germplasm has been observed ... suggests that this scenario is a realistic probability" .
For more see Monsanto and Terminator Technology.
Campaign to Undermine Organic Agriculture
Monsanto partially funds the anti-organic Center for Global Food Issues, a project of the right-wing Hudson Institute. It is run by Dennis Avery  and his son Alex Avery. Here find the latest on Hudson's anti-environmental and pro-biotech spinmeister Michael Fumento, and his secretly taking money (at least $60,000) from Monsanto. See also .
In 1998 Dennis wrote an article that began "'According to recent data compiled by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC), people who eat organic and natural foods are eight times as likely as the rest of the population to be attacked by a deadly new strain of E. coli bacteria (0157:H7)'. However, according to Robert Tauxe, M.D., chief of the food borne and diarrheal diseases branch of the CDC, there is no such data on organic food production in existence at their centers and he says Avery's claims are 'absolutely not true.'" . Following in his father's steps Alex distorted a study from the Journal of Food Protection that showed that organic food does not contain more pathogens than conventionally grown, contrary to Avery's claims.
For more see Monsanto and the Campaign to Undermine Organics.
Genetic Pollution or 'How to Succeed Without Really Trying'
Organic farms are increasingly finding that via cross-pollination their pure food has been contaminated with GM DNA thus ruining their businesses  . "In 2002, Ontario farmer Alex Nurnberg had tests conducted on his 100-ton harvest of organic corn. Twenty tons were found to be contaminated by GMOs, which Nurnberg believes were blown by the wind from the corn on a neighboring farm. 'I was not ready for it. I feel such a wrath about it,' says Nurnberg" .
For more see Monsanto, Genetic Pollution and Monopolism.
Monsanto, GM foods & Health Risks
Courtesy Michael Hansen, Ph.D., Senior Scientist, Consumer Reports:
SUMMARY: Based on the scientific uncertainty surrounding both the molecular characterization of genetically engineered (GE) crops as well as the detection of potential allergenicity, there is more than enough uncertainty to decide to require labeling of foods produced via GE as a risk management measure as a way to identify unintended health effects that may occur post approval. If foods are not labeled as to GE status, it would be very difficult to even identify an unexpected health effect resulting from a GE food.
For more see Reasons for Labeling of Genetically Engineered Foods
Labeling Issues, Revolving Doors, rBGH & Bribery
An issue of growing concern is the Campaign to Label Genetically Engineered Foods . Many have questioned why it is that while consumers in all of Europe and about fifty other countries around the world including including Japan, India and even China have the right to know through strict labeling which foods contain GM ingredients and thus to make an informed choice  consumers in the United States, purportedly the bastion of freedom, democracy and the "free market" in the world are denied this same right. Polls indicate that the great majority of Americans who are aware of the issue want labels .
GM Trees, Grasses & Wheat
Food crops are not the only area Monsanto and others have hoped to cash in on with their technology, also with frightening consequences, a range of genetically engineered "designer" trees and forests are also high on their list. From trees modified to withstand Monsanto's Roundup to trees designed with a reduced lignin content (lignin gives trees strength and rigidity) to appeal to the paper making and construction industry to "terminator trees" which don't produce seeds. This has met with fierce resistance from activists and scientists alike, but again, to no avail    . Already there has been a contamination issue with the GE papaya tree, the world's first commercially planted genetically engineered tree, which enraged local farmers in Hawaii .
For more see Monsanto and GM Trees And Grasses.
Monsanto made news in 2004 when it decided to withdraw its GM wheat from the market due to worldwide opposition.  Environmental risks of GM wheat. Update: Monsanto has apparently changed its mind and again is attempting to commence cultivation of GM wheat. "'We’re encouraged,' says Monsanto’s Trish Jordan. 'There may be some opportunity for us to re-enter the wheat space'" . This has created a furor with wheat growers, see Definitive Global Rejection of Genetically Engineered Wheat.
Farmers in India are finding that the "biotechnology revolution" is having a devastating effect on their crop lands and personal debt levels. "In 1998, the World Bank's structural adjustment policies forced India to open up its seed sector to global corporations like Cargill, Monsanto, and Syngenta. The global corporations changed the input economy overnight. Farm saved seeds were replaced by corporate seeds which needed fertilizers and pesticides and could not be saved" Says Vandana Shiva, leader of the movement to oust Monsanto from India.
For more see Monsanto in India.
Mexican Maize Mischief
Dr Ignacio Chapela, Associate Professor at UC Berkeley and graduate student David Quist were the target of attack by Monsanto after publishing a paper in the science journal Nature telling of contamination of indiginous Mexican maize (corn) with GMOs. The lead-up to the incident, however, is downright spooky (1). Still, Chapela was determined to publish what they found. So Monsanto employed the services of a firm called Bivings Group which used a phony e-mail campaign to persuade the prestigious science journal Nature to retract the paper, the first time in the publication´s 133 year history that it had ever retracted a paper  
For more see Monsanto's Mexican Maize Mischief.
Monsanto, Agent Orange, Dioxins & Plan Columbia
The following is excerpted from The Legacy of Agent Orange.
- "Agent Orange was manufactured by Monsanto, Dow Chemicals (manufacturers of napalm), Uniroyal, Hercules, Diamond Shamrock, Thompson Chemical and TH Agriculture. Monsanto [was] the main supplier. The Agent Orange produced by Monsanto had dioxin levels many times higher than that produced by Dow Chemicals, the other major supplier of Agent Orange to Vietnam.... Monsanto's involvement with the production of dioxin contaminated 2,4,5-T dates back to the late 1940s. 'Almost immediately workers started getting sick with skin rashes, inexplicable pains in the limbs, joints and other parts of the body, weakness, irritability, nervousness and loss of libido,' to quote Peter Sills, author of a forthcoming book on dioxins. Internal Monsanto memos show that Monsanto knew of the problems but once again a cover-up was the order of the day.... Operation Hades, later changed to Operation Ranch Hand, sprayed 6 million acres of forest in Vietnam, 19 million gallons of defoliant. The intention was to turn Vietnam into desert, to cause such destruction that Vietnam would never recover.... The most gruesome legacy caused by spraying Vietnam with dioxin contaminated Agent Orange was that born by the Vietnamese themselves. In a locked room of Tu Du Obstetrical and Gynaecological Hospital in Saigon are rows of formaldehyde-filled jars containing deformed fetuses, a grotesque illustration of Man's inhumanity to Man. The level of poverty in Vietnam prevents the preservation of further examples. Many of the living have fared little better, limb deformities, cancers."
For more see Monsanto, Agent Orange, Dioxins and Plan Columbia.
Monsanto's Legal Battles Against Farmers
Monsanto has sued many a farmer when their GM crops have turned up on the farmer's fields even though the farmers say they never planted them (examples)  . For an alarming expose of Monsanto's legal battles with American farmers see the report Monsanto vs. U.S. Farmers.
Monsanto & the World Food Crisis
Monsanto, ever on the lookout for a new financial opportunity, especially one which, on the surface at least, appears to be benevolent found one in biofuels. The growing of corn, in Monsanto's case, genetically engineered corn, for the production of ethanol purportedly to reduce the use of fossil fuels . Unfortunately though, as is often the case with Monsanto, this silver lining has a rather large and ominous cloud, and in the massive diversion of land once used to grow food to growing crops for the fueling of automobiles yet another crisis has ensued. In early 2010, Monsanto, along with other biotech companies and philanthropists, became involved in an ongoing project designed to develop new African drought-tolerant maize varieties. While the new seeds promise increased yields during drought years, the project (specifically Monsanto's involvement) is not without controversy.
For more see Monsanto and the World Food Crisis.
Corporate Controlled Food Supply
In early 2009, corporations like Monsanto, Archer Daniels Midland (ADM), Sodexo and Tyson Foods wrote and sponsored "food safety" bills which, according to critics; hand control and policing of food to factory farms and corporations. They point out that bills impose industrial, anti-farming "standards" to independent farms. Also, that they subject those who do not use chemicals and fertilizers to severe penalties, which apply even to producers growing food for their own consumption. The Food Safety Modernization Act of 2009: HR 875  was introduced by Rosa DeLauro, whose husband (Stanley Greenburg) works for Monsanto. According to critics, the bill includes criminalization of seed banking, prison terms and confiscatory fines for farmers; 24 hour GPS tracking of their animals and warrentless government entry. , 
Monsanto does animal testing.
Monsanto contract tests out to Huntingdon Life Sciences (HLS).  HLS is the 3rd largest contract research organization (CRO) in the world and the largest animal testing facility in all of Europe. Firms hire HLS to conduct animal toxicity tests for agrochemicals, petrochemicals, household products, pharmaceutical drugs and toxins. HLS has a long history of gross animal welfare violations.
See also Huntingdon Life Sciences.
Monsanto & Fox News: Partners in Censorship
In the fall of 1996, award-winning investigative journalists Steve Wilson and Jane Akre were hired by WTVT in Tampa, Florida to produce a series on rBGH. After over a year's work and three days before the series was scheduled to air, Fox News executives received the first of two letters from Monsanto's lawyers. According to the letters, Monsanto would suffer "enormous damage" if the series ran. The second letter warned of "dire consequences" of the series was aired as it stood. (How Monsanto knew what was in the series, remains a mystery.) WTVT had been advertising the series aggressively, but canceled it at the last moment. According to Florida Court records, Fox's lawyers then attempted to water down the series, twice offering to pay the journalists to leave the station and keep quiet about what had been done to their work. The reporters refused and filed a lawsuit against WTVT on April 2, 1998.
The lawsuit charged that WTVT violated its license from the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), by demanding that the journalists include known falsehoods in the rBGH series. They also charged that WTVT violated Florida's whistle blower law. On three separate occasions, Fox attempted to have the case summarily dismissed. However, after a five-week trial and six hours of deliberation ending on August 18, 2000, the jury unanimously determined that Fox "acted intentionally and deliberately to falsify or distort the plaintiffs' news reporting on BGH." They also found that Jane's threat to blow the whistle on Fox to the FCC, was the sole reason for their termination. She was awarded $425,000 in damages. On February 14, 2003, after six rejections by three different judges, Fox finally managed to win an appeal. , 
For more see Monsanto and Fox: Partners in Censorship.
"Monsanto should not have to vouchsafe the safety of biotech food. Our interest is in selling as much of it as possible. Assuring its safety is the F.D.A.'s job" - Philip Angell, Monsanto's director of corporate communications. "Playing God in the Garden" New York Times Magazine, October 25, 1998.
"Ultimately, it is the food producer who is responsible for assuring safety" — FDA, "Statement of Policy: Foods Derived from New Plant Varieties" (GMO Policy), Federal Register, Vol. 57, No. 104 (1992), p. 229
For lots more see Monsanto Notable Quotes
GMO seeds have been genetically modified to produce their own pesticide, survive the spraying of Roundup and self terminate. They are also incredibly expensive compared to traditional seeds. As a result, farmers in India were forced into total dependence on Monsanto by having to purchase new seeds annually. Because of Monsanto's ruthless drive to use India as a testing ground, 125,000 farmers took their own lives after being driven into a hopeless cycle of debt and losing their lands and homes.
GMOs, which were never adequately tested for safety, have failed catastrophically. At least 70% of our food contains genetically engineered food brought by Monsanto. GMO is endangering our health and environment at an alarming rate. Cross contamination is irreversible and good organic crops are being jeopardized. To sign a petition addressed to the U.S. Senate, Congress and President, see also Bring Down Monsanto...
In 2012, Monsanto spent $4.2 million financing "No On 37", a group supported by other GMO food manufacturers like DuPont, Dow, and Bayer. "No On 37" opposed California proposition 37, which would require labels on most genetically modified food products. 
Public Relations & Lobbying
2012 Monsanto Lobbying Data:
|Lobbying Firm||Amount Reported||Issue|
|Akin, Gump, Strauss, Hauer & Feld||$100,000||Issues relating to international trade agreements; introduction of client's international activities; issues relating to funding of the U.S.-Brazil Framework on cotton; issues relating to Farmer Assurance Provision in Agriculture appropriations bill (H.R. 5973)|
|American Continental Group||$150,000||America Invents Act implementation.|
|Arent Fox||$10,000||Importation of agricultural biotechnology products|
|Crawford & Mauro Law Firm||$75,000||Agriculture consolidation and competition.|
|Monsanto Company||$2,930,000||Biotech Regulations; Plant Protection Act; Roundup Ready Alfalfa; Roundup Ready Sugarbeets, H.R. 872: Reducing Regulatory Burdens Act of 2011 S. 473: Continuing Chemical Facilities Antiterrorism Security Act of 2011 H.R. 901: Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Security Authorization Act of 2011 Pesticide Registration Improvement Act, Implementation of the America Invents Act, Title II. Energy Security Through Increased Production of Biofuels, Subtitle A. Renewable Fuel Standard, Phosphate Mining, Issues related to the extension and expansion of alternative simplified research and development tax credit (H.R. 942) Issues relating to international corporate tax reform issues (S. 727) S. 1577: Greater Research Opportunities with Tax Help Act Tax Reform Act of 2011, Foreign Agriculture Biotechnology Laws, Regulations, and Trade, House and Senate FY 2013 Agriculture, Rural Development, FDA Appropriations Bills|
|Nobel Strategies||$60,000||Biotech Regulations Roundup Ready Alfalfa Roundup Ready Sugarbeets|
|The Russell Group||$160,000||Biotech Acceptance; Agriculture, Competition, and Related Issues; Advocacy for Plant Protection Act concerns; FY 2013 Agriculture Appropriations Act; Work relating to seed trade issues with South America.|
|The Washington Tax Group||$90,000||Issues related to extension and expansion of alternative simplified research and development tax credit (H.R. 942, S. 1577); issues relating to international corporate tax reform (S. 727, S. 2091).|
The company spent over $6.3 million in direct lobbying in 2011 and is on pace to break that number with over $1.4 million in direct lobbying in the first 3 months of 2012. The corporation focused on Roundup Ready Sugarbeats and Roundup Ready Alfalfa.
12 of its 21 (57%) lobbyists are revolving door or have worked for government at some point in their career, including Stanley Abramson who worked for the EPA, Jeremy Stump and Randall Russell who worked for the Dept of Agriculture.
Monsanto Citizenship Fund, a PAC funded through employee contributions, raised $534,888,899 for 2012 elections and spent $444,257 in the first 3 months of the year.
The company has directly supported at least 65 candidates for federal office in the 2012 elections, including thousands of dollars to the chairs and leadership of the House and Senate Ag Committee.
Center for Consumer Freedom
Key Executives Pay
- Hugh Grant - Chairman, CEO & President, $1.41 million
- Robert T. Fraley, PhD - CTO& Executive VP, $602K & $2.85 million in exercised options
- Brett D. Begemann - CCO & Executive VP, $542K
- David F. Snively - Executive VP & General Counsel, $481K
- Pierre Coorduroux
Board of Directors
- Hugh Grant, Chairman & CEO, Monsanto
- Gregory Boyce, CEO & chairman Peabody Energy
- David L. Chicoine, Ppresident of South Dakota State University
- Janice L. Fields, former president of McDonald’s USA, LLC
- Arthur H. Harper, managing partner of GenNx360 Capital Partners
- Laura K. Ipsen, corporate vice president of Microsoft Corp.'s Worldwide Public Sector organization
- Gwendolyn S. King, president of Podium Prose
- C. Steven McMillan, retired chairman of the board and CEO of Sara Lee Corporation
- Jon R. Moller, CFO, Procter & Gamble Company
- William U. Parfet, chairman of the board, chief executive officer and President of MPI Research, Inc.
- George H. Poste, CEO, Health Technology Networks
- Robert J. Stevens, executive chairman of the board of Lockheed Martin Corporation
Monsanto 800 N. Lindbergh Blvd.
St. Louis, MO 63167
Web address: http://www.monsanto.com
Articles & Sources
- Monsanto's Use of Humanitarian Projects to Open Global Markets to GMOs
- June 12, 2003 House Hearing on Plant Biotechnology Research in Africa
- Robert T. Fraley
- Earnest Jaworski
- Robert B. Horsch
- Roundup Ready Crops
- Bt Corn
- Bt Eggplant
- Agent Orange
- Animal testing
- CCF funding
- Monsanto's High Level Connections to the Bush Administration
- Monsanto and the Safe Food Coalition
- Monsanto and Burson-Marsteller Hire a Consumer Organizer
- Fired Fox-TV Journalists Win Goldman Environmental Prize
- Asgrow Agronomics
- DEKALB Genetics Corporation
- ↑ Pesticide Action Network of North America, Chemical Cartel, organizational website, accessed July 2012
- ↑ ETC Group, Who Owns Nature? Corporate Power and the Final Frontier in the Commodification of Life, international civil society organizational report, November 2008, accessed July 2012
- ↑ Key Monsanto Company Financials, Hoovers, January 2011
- ↑ Clearinghouse on Environmental Advocacy and Research, project of the Environmental Working Group, Information on American Legislative Exchange Council, archived organizational profile, archived by Wayback Machine December 2, 2000, accessed August 19, 2011
- ↑ Chapter 2: High-Flux Years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Review, accessed January 2011
- ↑ Biographical Memoirs V.65, National Academy of Sciences, 1994
- ↑ Alex Constantine Nutrapoison, Znet, July 2003
- ↑ A Short Curriculum Vitae of I.G. Farben, Biblioteca Plaeyades, accessed October 2009
- ↑ IG Farben to be dissolved, BBC, September 17, 2001
- ↑ Disneyland's Home of the Future, Mindfully.org, accessed January 2011
- ↑ Time line: History of Monsanto Co., Reuters, Nov 11, 2009
- ↑ CA Label GMOs Campaign Files 971,126 Signatures for Ballot Initiative, Causes.com, accessed July 13 2012
- ↑ Charles Benbrook Evidence of the Magnitude and Consequences of the Roundup Ready Soybean Yield Drag from University-Based Varietal Trials in 1998, Mindfully.org, accessed January 2011
- ↑ Charles M. Benbrook Troubled Times Amid Commercial Success for Roundup Ready Soybeans, Mindfully.org, accessed January 2011
- ↑ Charles Benbrook: Chief Scientist, The Organic Center, accessed January 2011
- ↑ Text of H.R. 875: Food Safety Modernization Act of 2009, govtrack.us, accessed March 2009
- ↑ Linn Cohen-Cole Goodbye farmers markets, CSAs, and roadside stands, Oped News, March 2009
- ↑ Lydia Scott HR 875 The food police, criminalizing organic farming and the backyard gardener, and violation of the 10th amendment, Campaign for Liberty, March 2009
- ↑ Inside Customers, SHAC.net, December 2009
- ↑ Sightings: Reporters Fired For Telling The Truth About RGBH Milk Hormone, Rachel's Environment & Health Weekly/Rense, April 1998
- ↑ Jury Overturned Verdict on Legal Technicality, BGH Bulletin, accessed January 2011
- ↑ 2010 PAC Summary Data, Open Secrets, accessed January 2011
- ↑ Stacy Malkan: $4.2 Million from Monsanto, Yes On 37, August 15th, 2012.
- ↑ Monsanto lobbying expenses, Open Secrets, accessed January 2011
- ↑ http://www.opensecrets.org/lobby/clientsum.php?id=D000000211&year=2011 Monsanto Lobbying, Open Secrets, Accessed July 18, 2012
- ↑ http://www.opensecrets.org/lobby/clientlbs.php?id=D000000211&year=2011 Lobbyists Representing Monsanto Co, Open Secrets, Accessed July 18, 2012
- ↑ http://images.nictusa.com/cgi-bin/fecimg/?C00042069 MONSANTO COMPANY CITIZENSHIP FUND AKA MONSANTO CITIZENSHIP FUND, Federal Election Commission, Accessed July 18, 2012
- ↑ http://www.opensecrets.org/pacs/pacgot.php?cmte=C00042069&cycle=2012 Monsanto Co Contributions to Federal Candidates, Open Secrets, Accessed July 18, 2012
- ↑ Monsanto Key Executives, Yahoo Finance, accessed January 2011
- ↑ Monsanto Board of Directors, Who We Are: Company Leadership, organizational website, accessed April 18, 2013
- GM Watch, accessed January 2011
- "Monsanto plans $4.3M R&D lab in PR" (Puerto Rico), Caribbean Business, June 29, 2011.
- Marie-Monique RobinThe World According to Monsanto, Mongrel Media, September, 2008 ASIN: B001BBQCMC [[Category: