Timeline of the Green Revolution

From SourceWatch
Jump to: navigation, search

This timeline of the Green Revolution provides the dates of the major milestones of the Green Revolution.

General

1940's:

1950's:

  • 1950: The Rockefeller Foundation realized that the Green Revolution "was a valuable weapon in the struggle to contain Communist expansion." [2]
  • 1953: Norman Borlaug receives semi-dwarf wheat seeds that were the key to his breakthrough in breeding high-yielding wheat.[3] He begins using these seeds in 1954.
  • 1956: Ford Foundation begins funding the Green Revolution.[4]
  • 1959: Wilbur Hugh "Ping" Ferry coins the term "Green Revolution."[5]

1960's:

1970's:

Mexico

The Green Revolution began as the Mexican Agricultural Program before it was extended worldwide and the name 'Green Revolution' was coined.

1930's

1940's

  • Late 1940: U.S. Vice President-Elect Henry A. Wallace goes to Mexico for the inauguration of Mexican President Manuel Avila Camacho. He spends a month in Mexico, traveling the country and often talking to farmers about their crops.

1941:

1943:

1944:

  • October: Norman E. Borlaug, a plant pathologist and plant breeder, joins the program.[20]
  • MAP briefly attempts to improve the nutritional quality of the corn in the seed varieties it created, but soon gave up. Joseph Cotter says, "Fighting malnutrition quickly became a secondary objective of the MAP."[21]

1946:

  • By this point, 44 Mexicans had completed advanced agricultural studies in the U.S. and 10 others were enrolled. MAP scientists helped plan curriculum for many courses at Mexico's National School of Agriculture, and J. George Harrar taught field plot technique courses there.[22]
  • To improve the diet of Mexican peasants, Harrar "added vegetable cultivation and breeding to the MAP's project list."[23]
  • The US government sends food aid to Mexico but decides not to do so in the future.[24]
  • Between 1946 and 1949, the USDA gave fellowships to 13 Mexican agricultural students. Harrar evaluated their applications.[25]

1947:

  • MAP begins distributing corn seeds to farmers.[26]
  • MAP uses DDT and Benzine-hexachloride to control corn pests but "admitted that 'these insecticides are too expensive for most Mexican farmers.'"[27]
  • "George C. Marshall declared that the United States would devote most foreign aid to 'countries where conditions are so unstable that proper safeguards against ideological coercion have weakened.'" The U.S. felt that Latin America was a safe region and focused worries about Communism on Europe and then Asia. "The USDA did not withdraw completely from Mexico but focused on prewar agendas like protecting U.S. farmers and promoting complementary crops."[28]

1948:

  • "Wellhausen reported that farmers' demands for his new open-pollinated and hybrid corns surpassed supply"[29]
  • MAP distributes wheat seeds resistant to stem rust to farmers.[30]
  • MAP publishes a pamphlet on DDT and shows Mexican farmers how to use the herbicide 2,4-D.[31]
  • The U.S. passes Public Law 402 authorizing use of govt funds for "a world-wide program of scientific and technical exchange."[32]
  • Rockefeller Foundation exchanges information with the Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations (OFAR) about their MAP program.[33]
  • Nelson Rockefeller visited Mexico to study MAP.[34]

1949:

  • By this time, "MAP conducted corn research at Chapingo, Celaya, Guadalajara, and Morelos; worked on hybrids for the tropics; and tested wheat in Chapingo, Sonora, and La Laguna. Responding to commercial farmers and other interests, the MAP studied seed potatoes, safflower, an African oilseed, insect pests of tomatoes, potato diseases, soybeans, and sorghum."[35]
  • In an effort to promote aquaculture to increase protein in Mexicans' diets, MAP had Herbert S. Jackson build several demonstration ponds.[36]
  • MAP uses Parathion, Chlordane, and other pesticides on corn, beans, and wheat.[37]

1950's

1950:

  • By this time, Mexico's Corn Commission had promoted hybrid corn varieties in 9 Mexican states, MAP had conducted experiments in 19 states, had distributed new seed in 22 states, and had distributed over 100kg of new seed in 10 states.[38]

1951:

  • Green Revolution wheat varieties covered 70% of all land planted in wheat.[39]

1952:

  • Mexico imported significant quantities of wheat, corn, rice, and even garbanzos[40]

1953:

  • Norman Borlaug receives semi-dwarf wheat seeds that were the key to his breakthrough in breeding high-yielding wheat.[41] He begins using these seeds in 1954.

1955:

  • Insecticide imports reach 30,526 metric tons (compared to only 432 in 1940).[42]

1956:

  • Mexico achieves wheat self-sufficiency.[43]
  • Late 1950s: From this point on, with the exception of 1963, Mexico is "virtually self-sufficient in corn and wheat."[44]

1960's

  • 1962: Norman Borlaug released the first two semidwarf varieties to Mexican farmers.[45]

1967:

  • Chemical fertilizer use reaches 379,000 tons (up from 12,000 tons in 1950).[47]

1968:

  • Green Revolution wheat varieties covered 90% of all land planted in wheat.[48]
  • Green Revolution varieties are grown in 20% of Mexico's cornfields.[49]

India

Before 1940:

  • 1919: India becomes a net food importer instead of a net food exporter.[50]

1940s

  • Summer 1942: The government of India began a formal Grow More Food campaign.[51]
  • 1943: The Great Bengal Famine occurs. Between 1.5 and 3 million Indians die.[52]
  • February-July 1944: The Advisory Board for the Imperial Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) plans India's participation in the UN FAO.[53]
  • 1946: Rockefeller Foundation president Raymond Fosdick finds the foundation under criticism for their work on public health. With improved public health, would people in poor countries be kept alive only to find themselves without food? Concern over overpopulation focuses almost immediately on India.[54]
  • 1947: India gains its independence from Britain.
  • August 1948: The new Rockefeller Foundation president Chester I. Barnard raises the issue of overpopulation with Warren Weaver.[55]
  • 1948: A pilot community development project begins in the Etawah District of Uttar Pradesh, India.[56]
  • 1949: India's relationship with the U.S. fundamentally changes when China goes Communist and the Soviet Union gets the atomic bomb. The U.S. sees food aid as a way to keep India from going Communist; India requests and accepts U.S. food aid as a means of preventing hunger but also keeping food cheap to promote industrialization with low wages in its cities.[57]

1950's

  • 1951-1956: First Five Year Plan
  • 1951: The Ford Foundation signs an agreement of $1.2 million with the Indian government to train personnel for the community development project. The project director was Douglas Ensminger.[58]
  • October 1951: The Rockefeller Foundation increases its agricultural budget to $1.5 million per year and commits to funding agricultural work in India.[59]
  • 1951: Rockefeller sends a study team composed of Warren Weaver, J. George Harrar, and Paul C. Mangelsdorf to India.[60]
  • 1952: The U.S. Technical Cooperation Administration (the precursor of USAID) pledges $50 million (matched by about $86 million from the Indian government) to support the Community Development Project plus work to improve rural infrastructure.[61]
  • April 1952: Harrar, Weaver, and Mangelsdorf write "Notes on Indian Agriculture." "This report led to several follow-up visits by [Rockefeller Foundation] representatives and ultimately to India's request for a collaborative agricultural program."[62] With this, the Rockefeller Foundation launches its India Agricultural Program (IAP)
  • 1953: India forms its National Extension Service (NES).[63]
  • 1955-56: At the encouragement of the U.S., India creates an Indo-American team to study Indian agricultural universities and make recommendations. The recommendations are for India to organize its universities like U.S. land grant universities.[64]
  • 1956-1961: Second Five Year Plan. India decides to de-emphasize agriculture in its second Five Year plan.[65]
  • 1956: After five trips to India, Rockefeller Foundation finally comes to an agreement with the Indian government.[66]
"It's possible that the Rockefeller Foundation's insistence that the most important task at hand was basic research led to the four year delay in establishing an operational program in India. The Government of India, the U.S. Technical Cooperation Administration, and the Ford Foundation were more interested in using existing knowledge for Community Development... In some ways, George Harrar, Warren Weaver, and the other Foundation scientists... they did not believe that the appropriate knowledge existed, so a scientific agriculture for India had to be created almost from the beginning."[67]

1960's

1963:

  • March: Norman Borlaug visits India, where he is hosted by M.S. Swaminathan, spending a month traveling to see Indian wheat varieties.[71]
  • November: A shipment of Mexican wheat varieties from Norman Borlaug arrives in India.[72]

1964:

  • January 8: Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru suffers a stroke.
  • March: Swaminathan asks Borlaug to send him 20 tons each of two Mexican varieties of wheat for planting at 1000 acres of demonstration plots at research stations.[73]
  • May 27: Nehru dies.
  • Lal Bahadur Shastri became Prime Minister and appoints C. Subramaniam as Minister of Food and Agriculture.[74]
  • June: Shastri's "prices committee" recommends policies of government "incentive prices" above market prices for grains and "larger investments in production inputs."[75]
  • July: Subramaniam announces the Food Corporation of India, which will buy grains at "prices attractive to farmers.[76]

1965:

  • January 1: Subramaniam gives a speech to the National Development Council, Committee on Agriculture and Irrigation in which he calls for "wider use of science in reforming Indian agriculture, including the use of better seeds, more and better use of fertilizer, and more efficient use of irrigation."[77]
  • March and April: India decides to release two more varieties of hybrid wheat for commercial production on irrigated land.
  • June: B.P. Pal becomes director general of the Indian Council for Agricultural Research.[78]
  • Early July: The Indian government orders 200 tons of seed for one variety (Sonora 64) from Borlaug.
  • Late July: The Indian government ordered another 50 tons of the second variety (Lerma Rojo 64A). Together, the 250 tons would be used for testing, demonstrations, and distribution to 5000 farmers.[79]
  • Summer: U.S. State Department informs India that future food aid will be dependent on India's allocation of foreign exchange for fertilizer or on building fertilizer plants in India. "In addition, in August 1965, the Johnson administration put India on a virtually month-to-month arrangement for food aid. These explicit links between population, food aid, and agricultural policy were stimulated by a conference of demographers, policy makers, and others, which was held in July and organized by the Rockefeller Foundation."[80]
  • August: Subramaniam issues the plan "Agricultural Production in the Fourth Five Year Plan: Strategy and Programme," bringing an official end to the government policy of community development and instead supporting "agricultural entrepreneurs."[81] (Whereas the government made this shift five years earlier in theory, this plan marks a shift in practice.)
  • Late September: Following a war with Pakistan, India asks the Rockefeller Foundation for 5000 tons of Mexican wheat seed to be planted in fall 1966.[82]
  • By November, the price of wheat has increased by 33 percent since 1964.[83]

1966:

  • January 11: Prime Minister Shastri dies.
  • January 19: Nehru's daughter, Indira Gandhi, becomes Prime Minister.
  • March: Indira Gandhi visits the U.S. "as part of the new government's efforts to improve relations with the United States. Gandhi was obliged to meet the demands of the Johnson administration that India devalue the rupee, enhance its own ability to increase agricultural production, and in other ways show evidence of development that were consistent with what the world's largest capitalist country thought development should be."[84]
  • February: India revises its request to the Rockefeller Foundation for Mexican wheat seeds from 5000 tons to 2000 tons.
  • April: India again revises its request for wheat seeds to 21,000 tons. J. George Harrar, now President of Rockefeller Foundation, not wanting responsibility for any potential failures of the wheat, offers India $100,000 to pay for wheat seed.[85]
  • An Indian team led by S.P. Kohli of the Indian Agricultural Research Institute goes to Mexico to select and purchase wheat seeds for planting in 1966.
  • July 18: The Indian purchase of 18,000 tons of hybrid wheat seeds is shipped from Sonora, Mexico.
  • Mid-September: The wheat seeds arrive in Gujarat, India.[86]
  • Green Revolution varieties of wheat covered 504,000 hectares in India in 1966-67.[87]
  • 1967: After this point, Indian grain production increases steadily.[88]

1970's

Latin America Outside Mexico

1940's:

1950's:

The Philippines

Resources and articles

Related Sourcewatch articles

References

  1. Joseph Cotter, Troubled Harvest: Agronomy and Revolution in Mexico, 1880-2002 Praeger Publishers, Westport, Connecticut, 2003, p. 208
  2. Joseph Cotter, Troubled Harvest: Agronomy and Revolution in Mexico, 1880-2002 Praeger Publishers, Westport, Connecticut, 2003, p. 209
  3. John H. Perkins, Geopolitics and the Green Revolution: Wheat, Genes, and the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 222
  4. Mark Dowie, American Foundations, The MIT Press, 2001, p. 112
  5. Mark Dowie, American Foundations, The MIT Press, 2001, p. 112
  6. IRRI - About Us - History - February, Accessed April 4, 2011.
  7. John H. Perkins, Geopolitics and the Green Revolution: Wheat, Genes, and the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 230=231
  8. Mark Dowie, American Foundations, The MIT Press, 2001, p. 114
  9. Mark Dowie, American Foundations, The MIT Press, 2001, p. 114
  10. John H. Perkins, Geopolitics and the Green Revolution: Wheat, Genes, and the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 106
  11. Bruce H. Jennings, Foundations of International Agricultural Research: Science and Politics in Mexican Agriculture, p. 46
  12. Bruce H. Jennings, Foundations of International Agricultural Research: Science and Politics in Mexican Agriculture, p. 48
  13. John H. Perkins, Geopolitics and the Green Revolution: Wheat, Genes, and the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 106
  14. Bruce H. Jennings, Foundations of International Agricultural Research: Science and Politics in Mexican Agriculture, p. 48
  15. John H. Perkins, Geopolitics and the Green Revolution: Wheat, Genes, and the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 107
  16. John H. Perkins, Geopolitics and the Green Revolution: Wheat, Genes, and the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 107
  17. John H. Perkins, Geopolitics and the Green Revolution: Wheat, Genes, and the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 107-108
  18. John H. Perkins, Geopolitics and the Green Revolution: Wheat, Genes, and the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 107
  19. John H. Perkins, Geopolitics and the Green Revolution: Wheat, Genes, and the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 108
  20. John H. Perkins, Geopolitics and the Green Revolution: Wheat, Genes, and the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 107
  21. Joseph Cotter, Troubled Harvest: Agronomy and Revolution in Mexico, 1880-2002 Praeger Publishers, Westport, Connecticut, 2003, p. 188
  22. Joseph Cotter, Troubled Harvest: Agronomy and Revolution in Mexico, 1880-2002 Praeger Publishers, Westport, Connecticut, 2003, pp. 190-191
  23. Joseph Cotter, Troubled Harvest: Agronomy and Revolution in Mexico, 1880-2002 Praeger Publishers, Westport, Connecticut, 2003, p. 195
  24. Joseph Cotter, Troubled Harvest: Agronomy and Revolution in Mexico, 1880-2002 Praeger Publishers, Westport, Connecticut, 2003, p. 206
  25. Joseph Cotter, Troubled Harvest: Agronomy and Revolution in Mexico, 1880-2002 Praeger Publishers, Westport, Connecticut, 2003, p. 207
  26. Joseph Cotter, Troubled Harvest: Agronomy and Revolution in Mexico, 1880-2002 Praeger Publishers, Westport, Connecticut, 2003, p. 198
  27. Joseph Cotter, Troubled Harvest: Agronomy and Revolution in Mexico, 1880-2002 Praeger Publishers, Westport, Connecticut, 2003, p. 199
  28. Joseph Cotter, Troubled Harvest: Agronomy and Revolution in Mexico, 1880-2002 Praeger Publishers, Westport, Connecticut, 2003, p. 206
  29. Joseph Cotter, Troubled Harvest: Agronomy and Revolution in Mexico, 1880-2002 Praeger Publishers, Westport, Connecticut, 2003, p. 198
  30. Joseph Cotter, Troubled Harvest: Agronomy and Revolution in Mexico, 1880-2002 Praeger Publishers, Westport, Connecticut, 2003, p. 198
  31. Joseph Cotter, Troubled Harvest: Agronomy and Revolution in Mexico, 1880-2002 Praeger Publishers, Westport, Connecticut, 2003, p. 199
  32. Joseph Cotter, Troubled Harvest: Agronomy and Revolution in Mexico, 1880-2002 Praeger Publishers, Westport, Connecticut, 2003, p. 207
  33. Joseph Cotter, Troubled Harvest: Agronomy and Revolution in Mexico, 1880-2002 Praeger Publishers, Westport, Connecticut, 2003, p. 208
  34. Joseph Cotter, Troubled Harvest: Agronomy and Revolution in Mexico, 1880-2002 Praeger Publishers, Westport, Connecticut, 2003, p. 208
  35. Joseph Cotter, Troubled Harvest: Agronomy and Revolution in Mexico, 1880-2002 Praeger Publishers, Westport, Connecticut, 2003, p. 194
  36. Joseph Cotter, Troubled Harvest: Agronomy and Revolution in Mexico, 1880-2002 Praeger Publishers, Westport, Connecticut, 2003, p. 195
  37. Joseph Cotter, Troubled Harvest: Agronomy and Revolution in Mexico, 1880-2002 Praeger Publishers, Westport, Connecticut, 2003, pp. 199
  38. Joseph Cotter, Troubled Harvest: Agronomy and Revolution in Mexico, 1880-2002 Praeger Publishers, Westport, Connecticut, 2003, p. 194
  39. Joseph Cotter, Troubled Harvest: Agronomy and Revolution in Mexico, 1880-2002 Praeger Publishers, Westport, Connecticut, 2003, p. 234
  40. Joseph Cotter, Troubled Harvest: Agronomy and Revolution in Mexico, 1880-2002 Praeger Publishers, Westport, Connecticut, 2003, p. 234
  41. John H. Perkins, Geopolitics and the Green Revolution: Wheat, Genes, and the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 222
  42. Joseph Cotter, Troubled Harvest: Agronomy and Revolution in Mexico, 1880-2002 Praeger Publishers, Westport, Connecticut, 2003, p. 234
  43. Joseph Cotter, Troubled Harvest: Agronomy and Revolution in Mexico, 1880-2002 Praeger Publishers, Westport, Connecticut, 2003, p. 234
  44. Joseph Cotter, Troubled Harvest: Agronomy and Revolution in Mexico, 1880-2002 Praeger Publishers, Westport, Connecticut, 2003, p. 234
  45. John H. Perkins, Geopolitics and the Green Revolution: Wheat, Genes, and the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 230-231
  46. Joseph Cotter, Troubled Harvest: Agronomy and Revolution in Mexico, 1880-2002 Praeger Publishers, Westport, Connecticut, 2003, p. 234
  47. Joseph Cotter, Troubled Harvest: Agronomy and Revolution in Mexico, 1880-2002 Praeger Publishers, Westport, Connecticut, 2003, p. 234
  48. Joseph Cotter, Troubled Harvest: Agronomy and Revolution in Mexico, 1880-2002 Praeger Publishers, Westport, Connecticut, 2003, p. 234
  49. Joseph Cotter, Troubled Harvest: Agronomy and Revolution in Mexico, 1880-2002 Praeger Publishers, Westport, Connecticut, 2003, p. 234
  50. John H. Perkins, Geopolitics and the Green Revolution: Wheat, Genes, and the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 158
  51. John H. Perkins, Geopolitics and the Green Revolution: Wheat, Genes, and the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 160
  52. John H. Perkins, Geopolitics and the Green Revolution: Wheat, Genes, and the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 159
  53. John H. Perkins, Geopolitics and the Green Revolution: Wheat, Genes, and the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 168
  54. John H. Perkins, The Rockefeller Foundation and the green revolution, 1941–1956, Agriculture and Human Values, Volume 7, Numbers 3-4, 6-18.
  55. John H. Perkins, The Rockefeller Foundation and the green revolution, 1941–1956, Agriculture and Human Values, Volume 7, Numbers 3-4, 6-18.
  56. John H. Perkins, The Rockefeller Foundation and the green revolution, 1941–1956, Agriculture and Human Values, Volume 7, Numbers 3-4, 6-18.
  57. John H. Perkins, Geopolitics and the Green Revolution: Wheat, Genes, and the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 173-4
  58. John H. Perkins, The Rockefeller Foundation and the green revolution, 1941–1956, Agriculture and Human Values, Volume 7, Numbers 3-4, 6-18.
  59. John H. Perkins, The Rockefeller Foundation and the green revolution, 1941–1956, Agriculture and Human Values, Volume 7, Numbers 3-4, 6-18.
  60. John H. Perkins, Geopolitics and the Green Revolution: Wheat, Genes, and the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 152
  61. John H. Perkins, The Rockefeller Foundation and the green revolution, 1941–1956, Agriculture and Human Values, Volume 7, Numbers 3-4, 6-18.
  62. Rockefeller Foundation archives, Accessed March 31, 2011.
  63. John H. Perkins, Geopolitics and the Green Revolution: Wheat, Genes, and the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 179
  64. John H. Perkins, Geopolitics and the Green Revolution: Wheat, Genes, and the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 179-80
  65. John H. Perkins, Geopolitics and the Green Revolution: Wheat, Genes, and the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 180
  66. Gary R. Hess, The Rockefeller Foundation & Economic Development in India, 1950-1975.
  67. John H. Perkins, The Rockefeller Foundation and the green revolution, 1941–1956, Agriculture and Human Values, Volume 7, Numbers 3-4, 6-18.
  68. John H. Perkins, The Rockefeller Foundation and the green revolution, 1941–1956, Agriculture and Human Values, Volume 7, Numbers 3-4, 6-18.
  69. John H. Perkins, Geopolitics and the Green Revolution: Wheat, Genes, and the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 181
  70. John H. Perkins, Geopolitics and the Green Revolution: Wheat, Genes, and the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 234-5.
  71. John H. Perkins, Geopolitics and the Green Revolution: Wheat, Genes, and the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 235.
  72. John H. Perkins, Geopolitics and the Green Revolution: Wheat, Genes, and the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 236.
  73. John H. Perkins, Geopolitics and the Green Revolution: Wheat, Genes, and the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 237.
  74. John H. Perkins, Geopolitics and the Green Revolution: Wheat, Genes, and the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 184
  75. John H. Perkins, Geopolitics and the Green Revolution: Wheat, Genes, and the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 238
  76. John H. Perkins, Geopolitics and the Green Revolution: Wheat, Genes, and the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 238
  77. John H. Perkins, Geopolitics and the Green Revolution: Wheat, Genes, and the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 239
  78. John H. Perkins, Geopolitics and the Green Revolution: Wheat, Genes, and the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 245
  79. John H. Perkins, Geopolitics and the Green Revolution: Wheat, Genes, and the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 241
  80. John H. Perkins, Geopolitics and the Green Revolution: Wheat, Genes, and the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 242
  81. John H. Perkins, Geopolitics and the Green Revolution: Wheat, Genes, and the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 185
  82. John H. Perkins, Geopolitics and the Green Revolution: Wheat, Genes, and the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 242
  83. John H. Perkins, Geopolitics and the Green Revolution: Wheat, Genes, and the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 184
  84. John H. Perkins, Geopolitics and the Green Revolution: Wheat, Genes, and the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 244
  85. John H. Perkins, Geopolitics and the Green Revolution: Wheat, Genes, and the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 243
  86. John H. Perkins, Geopolitics and the Green Revolution: Wheat, Genes, and the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 244
  87. John H. Perkins, Geopolitics and the Green Revolution: Wheat, Genes, and the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 245
  88. John H. Perkins, Geopolitics and the Green Revolution: Wheat, Genes, and the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 184
  89. John H. Perkins, Geopolitics and the Green Revolution: Wheat, Genes, and the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 245-46
  90. John H. Perkins, Geopolitics and the Green Revolution: Wheat, Genes, and the Cold War, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 245
  91. Joseph Cotter, Troubled Harvest: Agronomy and Revolution in Mexico, 1880-2002 Praeger Publishers, Westport, Connecticut, 2003, p. 209
  92. Chris Shepherd, The Rockefeller Foundation and Agriculture in Peru, Melbourne University, Australia.
  93. Joseph Cotter, Troubled Harvest: Agronomy and Revolution in Mexico, 1880-2002 Praeger Publishers, Westport, Connecticut, 2003, p. 208
  94. Moments in Time: 1950-1959, Accessed April 19, 2011.
  95. Arthur Theodore Mosher, Technical co-operation in Latin-American agriculture, 1976, p. 191-192
  96. Chris Shepherd, The Rockefeller Foundation and Agriculture in Peru, Melbourne University, Australia.

External Resources