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U.S.-Canada Binational Planning Group

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The U.S.-Canada Binational Planning Group was established in 2002 "after Canada declined to join U.S. Northern Command, but agreed to amend rules governing the North American Aerospace Defense Command to permit the planning group. The agreement establishing the planning group also focuse[d] on maritime cooperation" and, when the group was "in its formative stage," was believed that it "could evolve into a 'naval NORAD,' as some in the Pentagon [referred] to it. The planning group [was to] be used to share intelligence and prevent terrorist attacks and to minimize the loss of life and property." [1]

The first discussions were held in August 2002 between "Canadian Foreign Affairs Minister Bill Graham and Secretary of State Colin Powell," with "an agreement worked out by December [2002], which resulted in a two-year mandate that expire[d] in December 2004." [2] The arrangement was extended around November 2004, with an expiration date of May 2006. [3]

Additionally, it was necessary "to sort through various treaties and memoranda of understanding related protecting North American soil ... A classified Basic Security Document and Combined Defense Plan formulated a combined military response to various Cold War scenarios, such as a Soviet invasion of Canada or a Soviet aerial assault that crossed Canada on its way to the United States. Defense and security cooperation between the United States and Canada also is codified in more than 80 treaty-level defense agreements and 250 MOAs between the two defense departments, according to a 'U.S.-Canada Strategic Partnership in the War on Terrorism' white paper written [in 2002] year by the nonprofit Center for the Study of the Presidency in Washington." [4]

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