U.S.-Canada Binational Planning Group
The U.S.-Canada Binational Planning Group was established in 2002 "after Canada declined to join U.S. Northern Command, but agreed to amend rules governing the North American Aerospace Defense Command to permit the planning group. The agreement establishing the planning group also focuse[d] on maritime cooperation" and, when the group was "in its formative stage," was believed that it "could evolve into a 'naval NORAD,' as some in the Pentagon [referred] to it. The planning group [was to] be used to share intelligence and prevent terrorist attacks and to minimize the loss of life and property." 
The first discussions were held in August 2002 between "Canadian Foreign Affairs Minister Bill Graham and Secretary of State Colin Powell," with "an agreement worked out by December , which resulted in a two-year mandate that expire[d] in December 2004."  The arrangement was extended around November 2004, with an expiration date of May 2006. 
Additionally, it was necessary "to sort through various treaties and memoranda of understanding related protecting North American soil ... A classified Basic Security Document and Combined Defense Plan formulated a combined military response to various Cold War scenarios, such as a Soviet invasion of Canada or a Soviet aerial assault that crossed Canada on its way to the United States. Defense and security cooperation between the United States and Canada also is codified in more than 80 treaty-level defense agreements and 250 MOAs between the two defense departments, according to a 'U.S.-Canada Strategic Partnership in the War on Terrorism' white paper written [in 2002] year by the nonprofit Center for the Study of the Presidency in Washington." 
Related SourceWatch Resources
- Patterns of Global Terrorism: Overviews for Canada: 1987; 1988; 1989; 1999; 2001; 2002; 2003; 2004; and 2005, MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base.
- "Pact would allow U.S. troops into Canada during emergency," CBC News (Canada) (PrisonPlanet.com), December 10, 2002.
- Philippe Lagassé, "NORAD, NorthCom, and the Binational Planning Group: The Evolution of Canada–US Defence Relations": Part 1; Part 2; Part 3; Part 4; Part 5; and Part 6, Canadian-American Strategic Review, July 2003.
- "Sorting Through 50 Years Of Military Agreements. U.S.-Canadian Planning Group Eyes Enhanced Defense Cooperation," Canada National Defence, August 14, 2003.
- "The Future of Canada's Maritime Capabilities: The Issues, Challenges and Solutions in a New Security Environment." A Conference hosted by the Centre for Foreign Policy Studies, Dalhousie University, June 18-20, 2004: "The Maritime Security Environment from the Perspective of the Binational Planning Group and Northern Command, Rear-Admiral James D. Fraser, Canadian Forces Liaison Officer.
- Donna Mills, "Planning Group Weighs Value of 'Maritime NORAD'," American Forces Press Service, November 3, 2004.
- Jeff Sallot, "Deadline looms on continental defence project," The Globe and Mail (Canada), November 10, 2004. Subscription/purchase required.
- "Deadline looms on continental defence project," Vive le Canada, November 12, 2004.
- Michel Chossudovsky, "Is the Annexation of Canada part of Bush's Military Agenda?" Global Research (Canada), November 23, 2004.
- Michel Chossudovsky, "Canada and America: Missile Defense and the Vows of Military Integration," Global Research (Canada), February 23, 2005.
- "Homeland Security: Establishment and Implementation of the United States Northern Command" prepared by Scott Shepherd and Steve Bowman, Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division, The Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service Report for Congress, Updated February 10, 2005.
- Peter C. Newman, "Our policy: made in America. Post-9/11, Canada may simply become a client state of the Pentagon," Macleans (Canada), March 14, 2005.
- Timmy the G, "Annexation by degrees," Voice in the Wilderness Blogspot, March 14, 2005.
- "Background Notes: Canada - United States Relations," U.S. Department of State, March 2006.
- Michel Chossudovsky, "Continental Integration of Military Command Structures: A Threat to Canada's Sovereignty," Global Research (Canada), May 12, 2006.