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Wal-Mart Stores Inc. has 10,994 stores around the world, including more than 4,800 stores in the U.S.[1] It is the world's largest retailer [2] and the world's largest corporation in revenue. [3]

Walmart Jobs

An independent study found that the average Walmart associate makes just $8.81 per hour.[4] A Walmart pay plan [5] published in the Huffington Post frequently uses a wage of $8.00/hr in its examples of how to determine associate pay.[6]

At $8.81/hour, an employee who works Walmart’s definition of full-time (34 hours per week.[7]) makes just $15,500 per year. The websites Glassdoor and Pay Scale also indicate hourly wages below $10/hour. The company will frequently cite higher numbers by lumping managers in with its averages and excluding part-time and temporary workers. [8] In a September 2013 address to investors at Goldman Sachs, Walmart US CEO Bill Simon told the audience that “over 475,000 (Walmart) associates earned more than $25,000 last year.”[9] Walmart has 1.4 million associates in the U.S., including 1 million hourly associates in its stores. Mr. Simon's statement means that the majority of Walmart employees are paid less than $25,000 a year.[10] Though a Walmart spokesperson disputed some of the figures, he did confirm that a majority of Walmart's hourly Associates earn less than $25,000/year. [11]

Worker reliance on public assistance

Because of Walmart's low pay, hundreds of thousands of Walmart workers are forced to utilize state subsidized benefits, including food stamps and public housing. Multiple reports have examined this issue:

  • An April 2014 study by Americans for Tax Fairness estimated that subsidies and tax breaks for Walmart and the Walton family cost taxpayers $7.8 billion per year, including approximately $6.2 billion in assistance to Walmart workers due to low wages and benefits.[12]
  • An April 2014 Marketplace series found that Walmart is the largest beneficiary of dollars from the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, also known as food stamps. The company receives roughly 18 percent of all food stamp dollars, more than $13 billion in revenue. [13]
  • A study by Good Jobs First found that, in many states, Walmart tops the lists of employers whose workers are most reliant on government assistance.[14]
  • A May 2013 Congressional report calculated that Walmart workers are forced to rely on $900,000 in taxpayer support, including food stamps and healthcare at just one of the company's 4,000 U.S. stores. [15]

Increased Use of Temporary Workers

In June 2013, widespread reports indicated that Walmart was increasing hiring of temporary workers. At the time, Walmart spokesperson David Tovar said that less than 10% of Walmart’s U.S. workforce was temporary, compared with 1 or 2% previously.[16] The ranks of full-time permanent staff are “reportedly getting slimmer and slimmer.” [17]

Potential Impact of Wage Increases at Walmart

The retail sector, specifically, is the largest industry by employment in the United States, and is projected to add almost 1.1 million jobs between 2012 and 2022, more than most other industries. A study by Demos found that raising pay to a minimum of $25,000/year for full-time work at the nation’s largest retailers, including Walmart, would lift more than 1.5 million retail workers and their families up from poverty or near poverty.[18]

Walmart and Politics

From the 2000 election cycle through the 2012 cycle, the Walmart Political Action Committee and the company’s majority shareholders, the Walton family, spent nearly $17 million in federal elections.[19]

More than $11.6 million—69% of their contributions—went to Republican candidates and committees. In contrast, the Walmart PAC and the Walton family have given $4.6 million to Democratic candidates and committees.[20]

Walmart uses corporate funds to contribute to candidates and ballot measure committees. [21] The company has been a major funder of the Republican State Leadership Committee (RSLC), the group behind the 2010 Republican takeover of state legislatures, giving over $1.5 million to the group since 2004.[22]

At the state level, Walmart has spent almost all of its political contributions on Republican candidates and committees as well as on ballot initiatives that help it build new stores or limit government regulation.[23] According to California Watch, Walmart has used the ballot initiative process to threaten costly special elections and circumvent environmental review in that state: The Arkansas-based retailer has hired paid signature gatherers to circulate petitions to build new superstores or repeal local restrictions on big-box stores. Once 15 percent of eligible voters sign the petitions, state election law puts cash-strapped cities in a bind: City councils must either approve the Wal-Mart-drafted measure without changes or put it to a special election. As local officials grapple with whether to spend tens of thousands or even millions of taxpayer dollars on such an election, Wal-Mart urges cities to approve the petition outright rather than send it to voters. [24]

Support for American Legislative Exchange Council

In August 2011, *Walmart Stores and the *Walton Family Foundation were listed as chairman-level sponsors of the ALEC’s annual meeting.[25] A chairman sponsorship cost $50,000 in 2010. From 2011 to 2012, Walmart’s then-VP of Public Affairs, Maggie Sans, served as the secretary of ALEC’s ("Private Enterprise")private enterprise board.[26] Walmart executive Janet Scott was the co-chair of ALEC’s Criminal Justice Task Force in 2005, when the task force approved template language for “Stand Your Ground” laws.[27] Walmart is also the nation's largest seller of guns and ammunition and gun sales for the company have been rising [28].

In May 2012, Walmart withdrew from the organization.[29] The Walton Family Foundation has yet to publicly sever ties with ALEC, however. Since at least 2000, ALEC has backed a number of retail-related bills, including:

  • A bill that establishes "additional regulations" on swap meets and flea markets, making it harder for those small sellers to compete with retailers like Walmart;
  • A bill that would make it a "felony" to steal from three separate retailers, no matter the value of the stolen merchandise;
  • A bill that creates harsher penalties for thieves who leave stores through the "emergency exit" door.

A list of ALEC corporations, can be found here. A list of corporations which have cut ties with ALEC can be found here.

About ALEC
ALEC is a corporate bill mill. It is not just a lobby or a front group; it is much more powerful than that. Through ALEC, corporations hand state legislators their wishlists to benefit their bottom line. Corporations fund almost all of ALEC's operations. They pay for a seat on ALEC task forces where corporate lobbyists and special interest reps vote with elected officials to approve “model” bills. Learn more at the Center for Media and Democracy's ALECexposed.org, and check out breaking news on our PRWatch.org site.


In 2013, Walmart spent $7,260,000 on its lobbying efforts. With the help of 14 staff lobbyists and 14 outside lobbying firms, Walmart lobbied on dozens of issues at 13 federal agencies, as well as Congress and the White House.[30]

A top priority for the company has long been taxes, with issues ranging from corporate tax reform to online sales taxes.[31] The vast majority of Walmart’s 90 lobbyists are former Hill staffers. Additionally, five were former members of Congress.[32] The lobbying firms included Patton Boggs; Prime Policy Group; Sandler, Travis & Rosenberg; Mehlman Vogel Castagnetti; and Podesta Group.

In 2014, the company has also lobbied extensively on the issue of the minimum wage, despite initially claiming they were neutral on a proposed minimum wage increase [33]

Walmart and Consumers

Walmart is the largest retailer and the largest seller of groceries in the United States[34]. In 2013, Walmart had $16 billion in profits on revenues of $473 billion [35], but the company has been struggling recently with declining same store sales [36] and negative consumer sentiment. In May 2014, Wal-Mart reported falling sales for five consecutive quarters[37]. The company has admitted they could bring in an additional $3 billion a year by solving out-of-stock problems generally attributed to understaffing. [38] Various measures of consumer sentiment indicate that Wal-Mart’s low-cost business model may be negatively impacting the company’s growth. [39], [40], [41]

Since 2007, Wal-Mart has ranked last on the American Customer Satisfaction Index [42] for retailers. [43] [44] Wal-Mart also came in last, and well below average, in a 2013 survey of 6,600 of grocery shoppers by Market Force Information. In the Market Force survey, Walmart did not score in the top five on any of the operational attributes or product quality categories about which customers were surveyed – including the speed of check-out, cleanliness, and the quality of meat and produce.

In a 2014 survey of 27,000 Consumer Reports subscribers, respondents ranked Wal-Mart last among 55 supermarkets. [45] In the survey, respondents said that prices were as good or better at seven highly ranked supermarkets. [46]

A recent poll by Lake Research Partners found that 25 percent of Wal-Mart’s most loyal customers are shopping there less because of the company’s treatment of workers. Among the 27 percent of consumers who rarely or never shop at Wal-Mart, 36 percent say it is because of “poor treatment of workers,” and 26 percent say it is because Wal-Mart “pays workers too little.”[47]

Amplicate, which collates and analyzes online public opinion, has called Walmart the “least loved department store on social.” [48]Over the last year, Wal-Mart has seen a 0.6 percent decline in same stores sales. The New York Times reported on an internal company memo that indicated customers were losing trust in the quality of Walmart’s produce. The Times cited analysts who said the company “has cut so many employees that it no longer has enough workers to stock its shelves properly. [49][50], [51]

In her 2012 investigative book, “The American Way of Eating,” journalist Tracie McMillan concluded that Walmart’s management systems “completely broke down when it came to produce” contributing to problems with spoilage and lost sales. [52]

Walmart and the Environment

Walmart is one of the biggest and fastest growing climate polluters in the nation. Since 2005, the year the company launched its “sustainability” campaign, Walmart’s self-reported greenhouse gas emissions have grown 14%. Walmart's direct and indirect emissions now exceed those of many countries. This calculation does not include a number of sources of emissions, including those connected to ocean shipping of goods sold in Walmart stores.[53]
• Compared to other large U.S. corporations, Walmart has been slow to shift to renewable power. It currently gets 4% of the electricity for its stores from wind or solar. In contrast, Kohl’s and Staples get 100% of their electricity from renewable sources, while Starbucks get 70% and McDonald’s gets 30%. Walmart’s use of renewable power decreased between 2012 and 2013.[54]
• In 2007, the company set a goal of becoming packaging neutral by 2025.[55] After reducing packaging by 5%, the company declared the goal “not met” and ended the program in 2013.[56]

Environmental Impact of Walmart Business Model

Walmart’s business model carries a heavy environmental impact.

  • Big-box problems: Walmart’s 3,200+ Supercenters, averaging 105,000 square feet [57], are estimated by the Sierra Club to use as much energy each day as nearly 1,100 homes.[58]
  • Sprawl and land consumption: Walmart is known for building large stores, along with massive parking lots, on the fringes of communities, in areas ill-served by public transit. Its selection of construction locations for new stores has been criticized for encouraging more car travel, sprawl, and irresponsible land use.[59] [60]
  • Selling low-quality goods: Walmart’s focus on cutting costs has led suppliers to produce cheaper goods of lesser quality.[61] These goods wear out or break faster – requiring frequent replacements and creating more waste.[62] This creates a cycle that helps Walmart’s short-term sales but creates significant waste and environment impact in the long-term.[63]
  • Supply chain: Walmart is the U.S.’s largest importer of containerized ocean cargo. While ocean shipping is a major source of greenhouse gas emissions, Walmart does not include the environmental impact of ocean shipping in its greenhouse gas emissions calculations. [64]

Political spending favors environmental opponents

Walmart and the Walton family, the majority owner of the company, shows that Walmart and the Waltons are major contributors to electoral campaigns of politicians who obstruct action on the environment. In 2012, Walmart gave the bulk of its money (over $3.6 million) to lawmakers who regularly vote against the environment. [65]

Between 2005 and 2012, Walmart and the Waltons gave $2.1 million, more than half of their total Congressional campaign donations, to members of Congress with lifetime scores of 30 or less on the League of Conservation Voters scorecard. In addition, 69% of contributions from the Walmart PAC and 88% from the Walton family in 2011 and 2012 went to lawmakers who voted in favor of the Keystone XL Tar Sands Pipeline in 2012.[66]

Walmart As Leading US Importer

According to the Journal of Commerce, Walmart was the largest importer of good to the United States in 2013.[67] In 2013, Walmart imported 731,500 TEUs to the United States, more than two-and-a-half times the volume of goods it imported in 2002. In 2013, Walmart was responsible for 1 in 25 containers imported into the United States.[68]

Walmart's Importing and Offshoring Strategy

An economist with the Economic Policy Institute estimated that Walmart was responsible for $27 billion in US imports from China in 2006 and 11% of the growth of the total US trade deficit with China between 2001 and 2006, with Walmart’s imports during this period leading to the elimination of 200,000 US jobs.[69]

Nobel Prize-winning economist Paul Krugman attributed the speed with which Chinese imports grew to Walmart. “One of the things that limits or slows the growth of imports is the cost of establishing connections and networks. Walmart is so big and so centralized that it can all at once hook Chinese and other suppliers into its digital system. So – wham! – you have a large switch to overseas sourcing in a period quicker than under the old rules of retailing.”[70]

Due to Walmart's size, even the largest suppliers must comply with the retailer's demands for lower and lower prices because they cannot afford to have their goods taken off its shelves.[71] Companies that used to manufacture products in the United States, from Levi’s jeans to Master Lock, were pressured to shut their U.S. factories and moved manufacturing abroad to meet Walmart’s demand for low prices.[72] In turn, Walmart’s business model accelerated the use of offshore suppliers by its competitors, contributing to a greater loss of American manufacturing jobs.[73]

Walmart announces US manufacturing initiative, many questions remain

In January 2013, Walmart U.S. CEO Bill Simon first announced that the company would increase its purchases of American products.[74] And in April 2014, the company said it has committed to “buy an additional $250 billion in products made, assembled, sourced or grown in the U.S. over 10 years in an effort to grow U.S. manufacturing and encourage the creation of U.S. jobs (began in 2013).”[75] In conjunction with this promise, Walmart has produced a series of ads, highlighting manufacturing jobs at its American suppliers.

Walmart touts its manufacturing initiative, but the company's claims lack context, transparency, and clarity.

The numbers need to be put into context

Walmart’s initial commitment to purchase $5 billion a year in US products sounded substantial, but an increase of $5 billion per year amounts to just 2 percent of what Walmart currently spends buying goods for U.S. stores [76]. If Walmart spends $250 billion on U.S. products over the next ten years, that only represents about 6% of the company’s estimated total costs at Walmart U.S. and Sam’s Club over that time. In contrast, Walmart is the country’s top importer of ocean container transport goods. [77]

Walmart does not appear to be on track to take credit for one million new American manufacturing jobs either. At the end of the first year of Walmart’s program, the company’s suppliers had only created “more than 2,000 U.S. jobs,” 0.2% of the ten-year goal [78].

Increasing U.S. sourcing is something that Walmart would probably do anyway

Walmart will likely purchase $250 billion more in US-sourced goods anyway in the next decade simply due to its growth as a retailer – without making substantial changes to its sourcing practices for manufacturing goods. Walmart US CEO Bill Simon has previously indicated that because of rising transportation and labor costs, moving manufacturing back to the U.S. is something that is already happening. [79].

In fact, the Boston Consulting Group—the same firm Walmart hired to bolster its manufacturing job creation claims—reported in September 2013 that “More than half of U.S.-based manufacturing executives at companies with sales greater than $1 billion are planning to bring back production to the U.S. from China or are actively considering it.”[80]

Publicly available research from the Boston Consulting Group makes it clear that Walmart’s additional investment in American manufacturing is not driven by patriotism alone. A 2011 report from BCG further explains:

China’s overwhelming manufacturing cost advantage over the U.S. is shrinking fast. Within five years, a Boston Consulting Group analysis concludes, rising Chinese wages, higher U.S. productivity, a weaker dollar, and other factors will virtually close the cost gap between the U.S. and China for many goods consumed in North America. [81]

How “beautiful” is work at a Walmart supplier?

In its “Work is a Beautiful Thing” ad campaign, Walmart seizes upon the popular notion that American manufacturing jobs are well-paid jobs with good benefits, but Walmart supports the onshoring of these jobs at least partly as a cost saving mechanism in response to rising wages in China.[82]

One of the first factories touted by Walmart in March 2013 was 1888 Mills in Griffin, GA. The company makes towels for Walmart. The Los Angeles Times reported that 1888 Mills was adding a mere 35 jobs as part of Walmart’s initiative and that 90% of its production would remain overseas.[83]

Walmart uses political muscle to push trade policy that supports offshoring

Walmart spent $7.3 million on lobbying in 2013 alone. While this money was paid to influence a range of legislation, from promoting corporate tax cuts to discussing consumer online privacy, trade policy was among the issues Walmart lobbied on most aggressively.[84] In fact, Walmart has lobbied to make it easier to push American jobs out of the country for years, playing a key role in in lobbying for NAFTA in the early 1990s.[85]

Walmart and Veterans

In May 2013, Walmart announced an initiative to “offer a job to any honorably discharged veteran within his or her first 12 months off active duty.”[86] The company clarified with the New York Times that they could not guarantee that these jobs would be full-time. [87] The company estimated that they would hire more than 100,000 veterans during the next five years, .”[88] equivalent to 4 percent of the positions the company will need to fill in this timeframe [89]

Under the federal Work Opportunity Tax Credit (WOTC), Walmart will receive up to $9,600 in tax credits per veteran employee.[90] [91] Walmart has hired PeopleScout, a recruitment process provider, to handle the screening of veteran applications.[92] The website that PeopleScout created for applicants to Walmart includes a mandatory 13-question section labeled WOTC Questionnaire. This questionnaire determines if Walmart will receive a tax credit for hiring the applicant and the potential value of the credit. Walmart is also a member of the WOTC Coalition, a national organization that lobbies for extension of the WOTC. [93]

Concern over Job Quality for Veterans

The Boston Globe reported after the original veterans hiring announcement in January that “Walmart’s plan will help veterans meet their immediate need for a meager paycheck, but it won’t give them what they most desire over the long term: sustained support and training, now and in the future, that connect skills learned in the military with economic opportunities. Indeed, veterans’ long-term careers would barely be advanced if every retailer took up Walmart’s cause.”[94]

In an op-ed in Salon, disabled veteran and former Walmart associate Wally Lynn wrote about his experience, “Veterans from every American generation have put their lives on the line for our country, and it’s an insult that our country’s largest private employer pays us back with poverty jobs and erratic schedules that make it impossible to raise our families.” Wally Lynn “Walmart’s Big July 4th Like: This is How It Really Treats Veterans” Salon, July 3, 2014

Walmart and Women

The majority of Walmart Associates (57%) are women,[95] yet the company has been the target of repeated lawsuits alleging gender discrimination - particularly around pay, promotions and safety accomodations at the company.[96]

Walmart vs. Dukes

Walmart spent years defending itself in the largest class action gender discrimination lawsuit in history, Dukes v. Walmart. The plaintiffs alleged Walmart discriminated against women in promotions, pay, and job assignments. [97]

Ms. Dukes was a Walmart associate from Pittsburgh, California. Her suit alleged that Walmart illegally discriminated against her by repeatedly denying her application for promotions and by retaliating against her when she continued to request these opportunities.[98]

The U.S. Supreme Court dismissed the lawsuit in 2011 for technical reasons but without issuing a decision on the merits. Subsequent suits with smaller classes have been filed in California, Texas, Tennessee, Florida, Wisconsin and other states.[99]

Female Associates Paid Less Than Men

Walmart’s low wages are well-documented.[100] Women make up the majority of Walmart associates [101] and, as a result, are the most directly impacted by the company’s low wages. In fact, 57% of Walmart’s workforce is made up of women. [102]

Although Walmart fails to disclose current figures on differences in pay for men vs. women, a 2003 found that female Walmart employees at all levels earned less than their male counterparts.[103] Women at Walmart earned $5,200 less per year than men, on average. Women who worked in hourly positions earned $1,100 less than men in the same position. Women in salaried positions earned $14,500 less than men in the same position.[104]

According to the most recent data available, in 2012, only 42% of Walmart officials and managers were women, despite previous scrutiny over pay and promotions and the fact that women make up considerably more of the workforce at Walmart.[105] Women only hold 28% of the top positions at the company [106]

Family unfriendly scheduling

Members of the Organization United for Respect at Walmart (OUR Walmart) have consistently raised the issue of inadequate hours and unpredictable scheduling.[107] OUR Walmart members and others have noted that Walmart’s low wages often make it impossible to make ends meet, especially for associates who are only given part time hours. At the same time, the lack of predictable schedules can make finding additional work, childcare, doctor’s appointments and other parental responsibilities unworkable.[108]

In addition, Walmart’s insufficient sick days policy also makes it hard for working mothers to care for sick children.[109]

Walmart Moms Winning Change at Company

Under pressure from mothers working in their stores and women’s groups, Walmart announced in April, 2014 that it would alter its policy around accommodating pregnant women who work at Walmart. Walmart reworked its policy so that women with pregnancy-related complications could be considered “temporary disabled” and would be eligible for “reasonable accommodation.”[110]

The change in policy comes after an intense mobilization effort on behalf of pregnant Walmart workers. Members of the Organization United for Respect at Walmart (OUR Walmart) initially began discussing the troubles they had during their pregnancies online. The group later came together as “Respect the Bump” and sent a letter to Walmart’s headquarters about how pregnant women and mothers were being treated. A group of Walmart workers who are also shareholders put a resolution on the ballot of Walmart’s 2014 shareholders’ meeting calling for a change in pregnancy policies.[111] Shortly thereafter, Walmart overhauled their pregnancy policy, avoiding the publicity that would have come with the shareholders resolution. [112]

Workers Push for Additional Improvement on Pregnancy Policy

Walmart workers and women’s advocates are continuing to push for further improvement,pointing out that the policy would not necessarily provide accommodation for women with “normal” pregnancies. Writing in the Huffington Post, law professor Deborah Widiss argued,[113]

…. the relatively narrow wording Walmart has chosen for its policy suggests the company might not grant such requests if made by women with "healthy" pregnancies. This would be unfortunate -- and also often illegal. Walmart should revise its new policy to make clear that it will provide medically recommended accommodations for all its pregnant employees.

Walmart and the Walton Family Disproportionately Fund Candidates Who Vote Against Women

The Walmart PAC and Waltons spend millions each year on politics. And both give disproportionately to candidates who vote to weaken women's rights. Among candidates with scores on the American Association of University Women’s 2012 Congressional scorecard, the majority of the Walmart PAC and Waltons’ contributions went to those with scores of 25 and below out of 100.[114]

In fact, over that time period they gave over $1.5 million just to candidates with scores of 0. The scorecard factors in a range of issues including the reauthorization of the Violence against Women Act, the Paycheck Fairness Act, Planned Parenthood funding, and education.[115]

While Walmart was defending itself in court and undertaking a major PR e-ffort to improve its image with women, it was also spending millions lobbying the federal government on issues including the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act, paycheck fairness, and paid sick leave.[116]

Executives and Compensation

Executives and Compensation[117] Total fiscal year 2014 compensation:

  • Michael T. Duke, then-President and CEO - $5,643,677
  • C. Douglas McMillon, current President and CEO - $25,592,938
  • Charles M. Holley, Jr, Executive Vice President and CFO - $8,199,391
  • William S. Simon, Executive Vice President and CEO of Walmart US - $13,054,360
  • Neil M. Ashe, Executive Vice President and CEO of Global eCommerce - $13,178,743
  • Rosalind G. Brewer, Executive Vice President and CEO of Sam’s Club - $ 11,664,423

Walmart Directors and Compensation for Fiscal 2014[118]

  • Aida Alvarez $269,404
  • James Cash $345,925
  • Roger Corbett $304,846
  • Pamela Craig $116,677
  • Timothy Flynn $320,812
  • Marissa Mayer $263,607
  • Gregory Penner $278,745
  • Steven Reinemund $257,046
  • H. Lee Scott, Jr $244,660
  • Jim Walton $247,089
  • Christopher Williams $384,821
  • Linda Wolf $284,351

Note: Lee Scott and Christopher Williams stepped down from the Walmart board, effective June 2014.

Contact info

Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.
Attn: Customer Service
702 S.W. 8th Street
Bentonville, AR 72716
Phone: 1-800-WALMART (1-800-925-6278)
Fax: 479-277-1830
Web: http://www.walmartstores.com (corporate)
Web: http://www.walmartfacts.com Wal-Mart's Advocacy site

Articles and Resources

External Resources

Catherine Ruetschlin "Retail's Hidden Potential: How Raising Wages Would Benefit Workers, the Industry and the Overall Economy" Demos November 19, 2012
"Making Change at Walmart"
"Glassdoor page for Walmart Stores"
"Payscale page for Walmart"

Robert E. Scott, "Walmart's Reliance on Chinese Imports Costs U.S. Jobs" Economic Policy Institute, June 27, 2007.

Harold L. Sirkin, Michael Zinser, Douglas Hohner,"Made in America, Again: Why Manufacturing Will Return to the U.S." Boston Consulting Group. August, 2011

Marsha Salisbury “Top 100 US Importers in 2013” Journal of Commerce May 23, 2014

"Walmart Class Website"

"Making Change at Walmart"

"Walmart 1%: The People Behind the Walmart Empire"

External Articles

Alana Semuels, "Factory Growth is No Job Machine" Los Angeles Times March 3, 2013

Amy Traub "Not Made in America: Top 10 Ways Walmart Destroys U.S. Manufacturing Jobs" Demos July 2, 2012

Susan Berfield "More Than Half of Walmart's Hourly Workers Make Less Than $25,000/Year" Business Week October 23, 2013

Avi Rabin-Havt "Walmart Flunks Its Fact Check the Truth Behind Its Sarcastic Response to the Times" Salon.com June 25, 2014

Steven Gandel "Why Wal-Mart Can Afford to Give Its Workers at 50% raise" Fortune November 12, 2013.

Nina Martin "The Impact and Echoes of the Walmart Discrimination Case" ProPublica September 27, 2013

Karen McVeigh and Dominic Rushe "Walmart Moms Walk Off the Job in Protest at Pay and Conditions" The Guardian, June 4, 2014.


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  42. ACSI, "Press Release February 2014," American Customer Satisfaction Index”, February 19, 2014.
  43. Jonathan Berr, "How Wal-Mart disappoints both investors and customers," CBS MoneyWatch”, February 20, 2014.
  44. ACSI, "Press Release February 2014," American Customer Satisfaction Index”, February 19, 2014.
  45. Neeti Upadhye, "Wegmans tops supermarket survey; Wal-Mart ranks last," USA Today”, March 27, 2014.
  46. Jonathan Walsh, "Walmart is the worst grocer according to Consumer Reports," Newsnet 5”, March 26, 2014.
  47. Celinda Lake and Joshua Ulibarri “Recent Polling on Walmart” Lake Research Partners, June 5, 2014.
  48. Amplicate, "Walmart Is the Least Loved Department Store on Social Media," Market Wired”, April 6, 2011.
  49. Stephanie Clifford, "Walmart Strains to Keep Aisles Stocked Fresh," The New York Times”, April 3, 2013.
  50. Walter Loeb, "Why Are Walmart Stores Such A Mess?," Forbes”, July 17, 2013.
  51. Brad Tuttle, "Hey Walmart, It’s Hard to Make Sales When Store Shelves Are Empty," Time”, March 27, 2013.
  52. Lynne Rossetto Kasper, "One reporter's lesson from working at Walmart: Love your produce manager," The Splendid Table”, N/D.
  53. Stacy Mitchell "Walmart's Greenwash" Institute for Local Self Reliance March 7, 2012
  54. Ibid.
  55. Melanie Colburn "Walmart: 2013 Global Responsibility Report Released" Triple Pundit April 24, 2013
  56. Walmart Stores, Inc "Walmart 2013 Global Responsibility Report" Walmart Stores Inc April 24, 2013
  57. Walmart Stores, Inc. "Securities and Exchange Commission Form 10k" Walmart Stores. Fiscal Year Ending January 31, 2014.
  58. The Sierra Club "What is Walmart's True Environmental Footprint?" June 2011.
  59. Kaid Benfield "The Failure of Walmart's Sustainability Measures" CityLab from The Atlantic. August 2, 2012
  60. Stacy Mitchell "Walmart's Greenwash" Institute for Local Self Reliance March 7, 2012
  61. Ibid.
  62. Ibid.
  63. Stacy Mitchell "Is Your Stuff Falling Apart? Thank Walmart." Grist November 11, 2011
  64. Stacy Mitchell "Walmart's Assault on the Climate: The Truth Behind One of the Biggest Climate Polluters and Slickest Greenwashers in America" Institute for Local Self Reliance. November, 2013
  65. Stacy Mitchell and Jesse Bacon "The Truth Behind Walmart's Green Claims" Institute for Local Self Reliance, March 31, 2014.
  66. Making Change at Walmart "Walmart and the Environment Fact Sheet" Accessed June 24, 2014
  67. Marsha Salisbury “Top 100 US Importers in 2013” Journal of Commerce May 23, 2014
  68. Total TEU's taken from Cori Rogers, "US Importers in 2013 Were the Highest in Six Years" Zepol's Blog of U.S. Imports and Exports, January 31, 2014.
  69. Robert E. Scott, "Walmart's Reliance on Chinese Imports Costs U.S. Jobs" Economic Policy Institute, June 27, 2007.
  70. Charles Fishman "The Walmart You Don't Know" Fast Company December 1, 2003
  71. Amy Traub "Not Made in America: Top 10 Ways Walmart Destroys U.S. Manufacturing Jobs" Demos July 2, 2012
  72. Ibid.
  73. Ibid.
  74. Press Release from Walmart Stores,"Walmart to Boost Sourcing of U.S. Products by $50 Billion Over the Next 10 Years," Press Release, January 25, 2013.
  75. Walmart Global Responsibility Report 2014"Global Responsibility Report" April, 2014.
  76. Securities and Exchange Commission, “Walmart Stores 2014 10-K Filing” Filed March 21, 2014
  77. Marsha Salisbury “Top 100 US Importers in 2013” Journal of Commerce May 23, 2014
  78. Walmart Global Responsibility Report 2014"Global Responsibility Report" April, 2014.
  79. Bill Simon “Reviving U.S. Manufacturing Key to Rebuilding the Middle Class” Huffington Post, August 22, 2013
  80. Press Release "Majority of Large Manufacturers Are Now Planning or Considering ‘Reshoring’ from China to the U.S." Boston Consulting Group, September 24, 2013
  81. Harold L. Sirkin, Michael Zinser, Douglas Hohner,"Made in America, Again: Why Manufacturing Will Return to the U.S." Boston Consulting Group. August, 2011.
  82. Walmart Stores, Inc. "U.S. Manufacturing FAQ" Accessed June 25, 2014.
  83. Alana Semuels, "Factory Growth is No Job Machine" Los Angeles Times March 3, 2013
  84. Center for Responsive Politics "Walmart Stores: Client Profile Summary, 2013" OpenSecrets.org Accessed June 24, 2014.
  85. Amy Traub "Not Made in America: Top 10 Ways Walmart Destroys U.S. Manufacturing Jobs" Demos July 2, 2012
  86. Walmart Stores “Veterans and Military Families Careers and Recruitment” Accessed July 22, 2014.
  87. James Dao “Walmart Plans to Hire Any Veteran Who Wants a Job” New York Times, January 14, 2013.
  88. Walmart Stores “Veterans and Military Families Careers and Recruitment” Accessed July 22, 2014.
  89. Company will hire approximately 500,000 people/year according to Juliette Kayyem “Walmart’s Veterans’ Program is Temporary Relief” Boston Globe, January 17, 2013. The 4% figure is derived from 500,000 x 5 years divided by the promised 100,000 Veterans.
  90. Chronicle News Services “Walmart Pledges to Hire Veterans, buy U.S.” SF Gate January 15, 2013
  91. US Department of Labor Employment and Training Administration “WOTC Tax Credit Amounts” Accessed July 22, 2014.
  92. Staffing Industry Analysts “PeopleScout to Help Walmart Hire 100,000 Veterans” May 28, 2013.
  93. WOTC Coalition “Info, Our Founding Members” Accessed July 24, 2014.
  94. Juliette Kayyem “Walmart’s Veterans’ Program is Temporary Relief” Boston Globe, January 17, 2013
  95. Walmart Stores "Our People" Accessed June 25, 2014.
  96. Nina Martin "The Impact and Echoes of the Walmart Discrimination Case" ProPublica September 27, 2013
  97. BETTY DUKES, PATRICIA SURGESON, EDITH ARANA, DEBORAH GUNTER and CHRISTINE KWAPNOSKI, on behalf of themselves and all others similarly situated, Plaintiffs, v. WAL-MART STORES, INC., Defendant. "Plaintiff's Fourth Amended Complaint" U.S. District Court, Northern District of California.
  98. Ibid.
  99. Walmart Class Website "Walmart Class" Accessed June 26, 2014
  100. Susan Berfield "More Than Half of Walmart's Hourly Workers Make Less Than $25,000/Year" Business Week October 23, 2013
  101. Walmart Stores "Our People" Accessed June 25, 2014.
  102. Ibid.
  103. Richard Drogin, PhD "Statistical Analysis of Gender Patterns in Wal-mart Workforce" Drogin, Kakigi & Associates December, 2013.
  104. Ibid.
  105. Walmart Stores "Walmart Workforce Diversity 2012" 2012.
  106. Walmart Stores "Walmart Diversity and Inclusion Report" 2013.
  107. OUR Walmart "Petition: Walmart Stop Cutting Our Hours" CoWorker.org Accessed June 25, 2014.
  108. Press Release "Workers with Just Hours Campaign Protest Underemployment at NRF During Bill Simon Speech" Retail Action Project. January 11, 2013
  109. Katie Bethell "[http://www.momsrising.org/blog/wal-marts-sick-sickdays-policy/ Wal-Mart’s sick sick days policy.” MomsRising.org. December 13, 2009.
  110. Lydia Depillis "Under Pressure, Walmart Upgrades Its Policy for Helping Pregnant Workers" Washington Post. April 5, 2014.
  111. Making Change at Walmart "Moms Take on Walmart And Win" Walmart Watch Blog. April 7, 2014.
  112. Lydia Depillis "Under Pressure, Walmart Upgrades Its Policy for Helping Pregnant Workers" Washington Post. April 5, 2014.
  113. Deborah Widiss "How Walmart's 'Support' for Pregnant Employees Falls Short" Huffington Post April 21, 2014
  114. Making Change at Walmart "Women's Issues" ChangeWalmart.org Accessed June 27, 2014
  115. Ibid.
  116. Ibid.
  117. Morningstar "WMT Analysis Accessed July 22, 2014"
  118. Walmart Stores "Walmart Proxy 2014" Securities and Exchange Commission. Filed April 23, 2014]"