Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court
Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court was "created by section 103(a) of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (50 U.S.C. 1803(a)). It was originally comprised of seven district judges from seven circuits named by the Chief Justice of the United States to serve a maximum of 7 years. In 2001, the U.S.A. Patriot Act I (section 208) amended the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act to increase the number of FIS Court judges from seven to eleven, 'of whom no fewer than 3 shall reside within 20 miles of the District of Columbia.'" 
- Colleen Kollar-Kotelly, Presiding, D.D.C., 5/19/02-5/18/2009
- Dee D. Benson, D-Utah, 5/04-5/11
- Robert C. Broomfield, D-Arizona, 10/01/02-5/18/2009
- James G. Carr, N.D.-Ohio 5/19/02-5/18/2008
- John E. Conway, D-New Mexico, 5/19/02-5/18/2007
- Michael J. Davis, J.D.-Minnesota, 5/18/99-5/18/2006
- Nathaniel M. Gorton, D-Massachusetts, 5/18/01-5/18/2008
- Claude M. Hilton, E.D.-Virginia, 5/18/01-5/18/2007
- Malcolm Howard, N.C., 2005-2012
- George P. Kazen, S.D.-Texas, 5/18/03-5/18/2010
- James Robertson, D.D.C., 5/19/02-5/18/2006
- Bush administration warrantless wiretapping (The Bush administration's false FISA defense)
- Department of Justice
- Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review
- George W. Bush's domestic spying
- National Security Surveillance Act of 2006
- Patriot Act II
- USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005
- Dan Eggen and Susan Schmidt, "Secret Court Rebuffs Ashcroft. Justice Dept. Chided On Misinformation," Washington Post (Freedom of Information Center), August 23, 2002. Memorandum on Opinion, May 17, 2002.
- "U.S. spy court judge quits amid spying debate - paper," Reuters, December 21, 2005: On Monday, December 19, 2005, U.S. District Judge James Robertson, "one of 11 members" of FISA, "sent his resignation" to Chief Supreme Court Justice John G. Roberts, Jr..
- Carol D. Leonnig and Dafna Linzer, "Spy Court Judge Quits In Protest. Jurist Concerned Bush Order Tainted Work of Secret Panel," Washington Post, December 21, 2005.
- Gina Holland, "Judge Resigns Over Secret Surveillance," Associated Press (ABC News), December 21, 2005.
- Eric Lichtblau, "Judges on Secretive Panel Speak Out on Spy Program," Washington Post, March 29, 2006.