GT73 (also known as RT73) is genetically engineered canola (rapeseed) that has had its DNA modified to withstand the herbicide glyphosate (the active ingredient in Monsanto's herbicide Roundup). Monsanto sells it under the brand name "Genuity™ Roundup Ready® Canola."
1994: Deregulation in Canada
1997: Commercialization in Canada
Monsanto introduces GT73, branding it "Roundup Ready Canola." At the time, Canada was the world's third largest producer of rapeseed (canola is a variety of rapeseed), behind China and India. Canada produced 6,657,900 metric tons of rapeseed in 1997, compared to only 415,640 produced by the U.S. that year.
1999: Deregulation in the U.S.
On August 4, 1998, Monsanto submitted a petition to the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service for the deregulation of RT73 (GT73). On October 16, 1998, APHIS published a notice in the Federal Register announcing that the Monsanto petition was available for public review and soliciting public comments, due on or before December 15, 1998. The USDA conducted an environmental assessment (EA) under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and issued a "finding of no significant impact" (FONSI). RT73 was deregulated on January 27, 1999.
- "Canola line RT73 has been genetically engineered to contain a CP4 EPSPS gene derived from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4, and a modified goxv247 gene derived from Ochrobactrum anthropi strain LBAA. The CP4 EPSPS gene encodes a 5-enolpyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (CP4 EPSPS) protein, and the goxv247 gene encodes a glyphosate oxidoreductase (GOXv247) protein. The CP4 EPSPS gene and GOXv247 proteins confer tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate. Expression of the added genes is controlled in part by gene sequences derived from the plant pathogen figwort mosaic virus, and the Agrobacterium tumefaciens method was used to transfer the added genes into the parental canola Westar variety plants."
See the section on Controversies in the article on Roundup Ready Crops.
Articles and resources
Related SourceWatch articles
- Roundup Ready Canola
- Roundup Ready Crops
- Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)
- Glyphosate Resistant Weeds
- GM Crop Database, Accessed August 13, 2012.
- Product Safety Summaries, Accessed August 13, 2012.
- Novel Food Decisions - Approvals, Health Canada, Accessed August 13, 2012.
- Monsanto Company History, Accessed August 13, 2012.
- FAOSTAT, Accessed August 13, 2012.
- Federal Register, Vol. 64, No. 23, February 4, 1999.
- GT73 Glyphosate Tolerant Canola, Health Canada.
- GM Crop Database, Center for Environmental Risk Assessment
- Overview of GMO Events Commercially Available and Regulatory Status
- Novel Food Decisions - Approved Products, Health Canada.
- Charles Benbrook, "Impacts of Genetically Engineered Crops on Pesticide Use: The First Thirteen Years" and Supplemental Tables, The Organic Center, 2009.
- "Failure to Yield: Evaluating the Performance of Genetically Engineered Crops," Union of Concerned Scientists, 2009.