Miconazole

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Miconazole is an antifungal drug, a type of pharmaceutical used for skin infections, including athlete's foot, jock itch, and vaginal yeast infections.[1] It is also used for ringworm[2] Miconazole is available over the counter. It is sold under the brand names Desenex, Femizol, Fungold, Lotrimin, Micatin, Monistat, Ting, and Zeasorb.

Form, Route, and Dosage

"Miconazole comes as a cream, lotion, powder, spray liquid, and spray powder to be applied to the skin. It also comes as a cream and suppository to be inserted into the vagina. Miconazole is usually used once or twice a day for 1 month for athlete's foot or 2 weeks for other skin infections. For vaginal infections, it is used once a day at bedtime for 3 (Monistat-3) or 7 (Monistat-7) days."[3]

Risks

Side Effects

Some patients taking this medication might experience side effects, including:[4]

  • increased burning, itching, or irritation of the skin or vagina
  • stomach pain
  • fever
  • foul-smelling vaginal discharge

As a Pollutant

Because humans and animals often do not fully metabolize pharmaceuticals in their body, they can excrete drugs or their breakdown products, which may the enter the environment.[5]

In Sewage Sludge

Miconazole has been found in sewage sludge. In the Targeted National Sewage Sludge Survey, a 2009 test of 84 samples of sewage sludge from around the U.S., the EPA found miconazole in 80 samples (95%) in concentrations ranging from 14.2 to 9,210 parts per billion.[6] There are no federal regulations governing how much of this drug may be present in sewage sludge applied to land as fertilizer.

Articles and resources

Related SourceWatch articles

References

  1. Miconazole: MedlinePlus Drug Information, Accessed August 31, 2010.
  2. Antifungal (Miconazole) Top: Dosage, Uses, and Warnings, Accessed September 3, 2010.
  3. Miconazole: MedlinePlus Drug Information, Accessed August 31, 2010.
  4. Miconazole: MedlinePlus Drug Information, Accessed August 31, 2010.
  5. O.A.H. Jones, N. Voulvoulis, and J.N. Lester, Human Pharmaceuticals in Wastewater Treatment Processes, Environmental Science and Technology, 2005.
  6. Targeted National Sewage Sludge Survey Report, US EPA website, Accessed August 28, 2010.

External resources

External articles