Arnold Kanter, a senior fellow at the Forum for International Policy, served as "Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs from October 1991 to January 1993. As the third-ranking official in the State Department, Dr. Kanter functioned as its 'Chief Operating Officer' with responsibility for the day-to-day management of United States foreign policy, and the substantive supervision of more than 140 ambassadors through nine assistant secretary-level officials. Prior to assuming this position, Dr. Kanter served on the White House staff from 1989-1991 as Special Assistant to ...President (George Herbert Walker Bush), and in various State Department positions from 1977-1985. In addition to his extensive government experience, Dr. Kanter was a program director at the RAND Corporation, a member of the research staff of the Brookings Institution, and a member of the faculty at Ohio State University and the University of Michigan. He also is the author of books and articles on defense and foreign policy. Dr. Kanter earned his undergraduate degree from the University of Michigan and his masters and doctoral degrees from Yale University. He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and the International Institute of Strategic Studies."