The upper Devonian shales of the Appalachian Basin, which are known by different names in different areas have produced gas since the early 20th century. The main producing area straddles the state lines of Virginia, West Virginia, and Kentucky, but extends through central Ohio and along Lake Erie into the panhandle of Pennsylvania. More than 20,000 wells produce gas from Devonian shales in the basin. The wells are commonly 3,000 to 5000 feet deep. The shale most commonly produced is the Chattanooga Shale, also called the Ohio Shale. The US Geological Survey estimated a total resource of 12.2 cubic feet of natural gas in Devonian black shales from Kentucky to New York.
- Richard E. Peterson (1982) A Geologic Study of the Appalachian Basin, Gas Research Institute, p.40, 45.
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