Human genome project
The Human Genome Project (HBP) (1990-2003): "The year 2003 marks two major milestones in genomics: the completion of the sequencing of the human genome, and the 50th anniversary of the discovery of the DNA double helix."
On April 14, 2003, the "International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium, led in the United States by the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) and the Department of Energy (DOE), ...announced the successful completion of the Human Genome Project more than two years ahead of schedule."
The Department of Energy (DOE) and the Human Genome Project
"DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research [OBER, changed in 1998 from the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER)] and DOE's predecessor agencies--the Atomic Energy Commission and the Energy Research and Development Administration--have long sponsored research into genetics, including that of microbial systems and mammals. This research involves basic studies of genome structure, replication, damage, repair, and the consequences of radiation-induced heritable mutations. Scientists have recognized for years that the DNA in the cell nucleus (the repository of information controlling cell structures and functions) was the cellular component most susceptible to damage from radiation and chemicals. Thus a detailed knowledge of the DNA sequence (in essence its information content) would enable better assessments of damage to it."
National Research Centers
- "Three genome research centers were established in 1988-89 at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory/LLNL, and Los Alamos National Laboratory. In January 1997, the three centers were merged into the Joint Genome Institute (JGI) (see "Eyes on the Prize: Deliver the Sequence," and "DOE Joint Genome Institute Exceeds DNA Sequencing Goal," Human Genome News). The merger represented a shift toward large-scale sequencing and integrated work at the three centers via intensified collaborations. 'The Joint Genome Institute will enable more efficient cooperation among DOE laboratories to develop the next generation of genome sequencing technologies,' said Martha Krebs, director of DOE's Office of Energy Research."
- "In addition to production sequencing, a major goal of the JGI is to enrich the sequence data with information about its biological function, dubbed 'functional genomics' as compared to the 'structural genomics' of generating maps and other resources in the Human Genome Project. Functional genomics projects focus on studying domains sequenced by JGI."
- "In 1987, under the leadership of Director James Wyngaarden, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) established the Office of Genome Research in the Director's Office. In 1989 this office became the National Center for Human Genome Research (NCHGR), directed by James D. Watson. After Watson's resignation in April 1992, Michael Gottesman was appointed NCHGR Acting Director. In 1993, Francis Collins was made Director of NCHGR, which became the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) in 1997."
- "In a 1994 spinoff from the HGP, DOE initiated the highly successful Microbial Genome Program to determine the complete sequence of bacteria having potential usefulness in energy, environmental, and evolutionary research."
- "DOE and NIH cooperated to support critical resources such as the Genome Database (GDB) formerly based at Johns Hopkins University. Cofunded in 1991 as the central international repository of human chromosome mapping and related data, GDB also received some funds from other nations. In addition, nine international nodes of GDB had copies of all GDB data. DOE later assumed lead responsibility for GDB with some NIH funding. Active DOE support for GDB ceased in January 1999, with a copy of the database posted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Genome Annotation Consortium site. GDB has since received other support and is continuing to serve the scientific community from the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto."
"Rapid progress and technology developments during the first half of the project have affirmed researchers' optimism that the task can be completed ahead of time and within budget. A final 5-year set of U.S. goals was presented to Congress in the fall of 1998. Priorities through 2003 have included the following:
- "Clone and sequence full-length cDNAs of humans and model organisms, especially mouse.
- "Develop and improve software for determining and assembling sequences and recognizing expressed genes.
- "Identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms as measures of human variation.
- "Continue to study ethical, legal, and social issues related to the project."
- Human Genome Project Resources.
- George Cahill, A Brief History of the Human Genome Project, Dartmouth College; Chapter 1 from: Gert, Bernard et al. 1996. Morality and the New Genetics: A Guide for Students and Health Care Providers., Boston, MA: Jones and Bartlett, Publishers. Used with permission of the author.
- Stanford Human Genome Institute.
- Human Genome Project at The Sanger Institute, UK.
- German Human Genome Project.
- Russian National Human Genome Program.
- The Human Genome Project: A Public Health Perspective, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Office of Geonomics and Disease Prevention (OGDP).
- Blueprint of the Body, CNN Special.
- Nicholas Wade, Gains in Understanding Human Cells, The New York Times, October 25, 2002.
- Tabitha M. Powledge, Human genome project complete. 'Final' version includes 99% of gene-containing DNA -- variation between individuals is next challenge, The Scientist, April 15, 2003.
- Nichalas Wade, Y Chromosomes Sketch New Outline of British History, The New York Times, May 27, 2003.
- Andrew Pollack, DNA of Blacks To Be Gathered To Fight Illness, The New York Times, May 27, 2003.
- Nicholas Wade, Project Will Seek to Uncover Genetic Roots of Major Diseases, The New York Times, May 29, 2003.
- Nicholas Wade, Gene Sweepstakes Ends, but Winner May Well Be Wrong, The New York Times, May 31, 2003.
- J.D. Watson & F.H.C. Crick, Molecular structure of Nucleic Acids, Nature: 171, 737-738 (1953).
- Genome Programs of the U.S. Department Energy Office of Science.
- Robert Mullan Cook-Deegan, Origins of the Human Genome Project, Risk Journal, 1994.
- The Genome Database.
- History of the DOE Human Genome Project / TimeLine / Foreword / The Genome Project. Why the DOE?
- Genome Therapeutics Corporation is "the only commercial sequencing facility chosen to participate in the Human Genome Project."
- Richard C. Lewontin
- Hilary Cunningham , "Colonial Encounters in Postcolonial Contexts: Patenting Indigenous DNA and the Human Genome Diversity Project", Critique of Anthropology, Vol. 18, No. 2, 205-233 (1998).