Junk Science (Doc Index)
This stub is a work-in-progress by the ScienceCorruption.com journalists's group. We are indexing the millions of documents stored at the San Francisco Uni's Legacy Tobacco Archive  With some entries you'll need to go to this site and type into the Search panel a (multi-digit) Bates number. You can search on names for other documents also. Send any corrections or additions to firstname.lastname@example.org
A number of junk-science scams were run by the tobacco industry who appear to have acquired the term from the chemical industry which was reacting to legislative measures under the Superfund program (CERCLA) forcing them to clean up toxic waste sites. The tobacco industry's interest was spurred by the 1993 EPA release of its ETS Risk Assessment which classed second-hand smoke as a Group A (known) carcinogen. The industry's only effective counter was to attack the standards of the science (and meta-analysis techniques) used by the EPA in their determination.
The branding of anti-industry research as evidence of '"junk science" was balanced by branding their own research exonerating their poisons or pollutants from health of environmental harm with the claim of "sound science". By a concerted effort and many millions of dollars, the tobacco industry managed to get Steven J Milloy and The Advancement of Sound Science Coalition accepted for a few years as the popular arbitrator of what was sound and what was junk in scientific research. This was coupled with an attack on global warming and ozone depletion claims to bring the chemical and energy industries into coalitions, and also by an attempt to set a standard for epidemiology (called GEP).
TASSC & SEPP
APCO Associates, the Philip Morris controlled PR company promoted this TASSC scam. And it also created a related phantom organisation which briefly became the arbiter on climate change -- the Science & Environment Policy Project (SEPP) run by S Fred Singer and his wife Candace Crandall. This became valuable to tobacco because it called into question the whole science of pollution and health -- and it was also possible to extend TASSC and get funding from the energy companies and big oil. Later they extended it to the chemical and pharmaceutical companies, and Milloy led the battle against the removal of DDT as a US insecticide, while George L Carlo was put to work modifying the Chemical Industry's Good Epidemiological Practices (GEP) concept into a standard useful to block research on low-incident toxics in the environment.
TASSC and Milloy weren't the only junk-science promoters set up by the poisoning and polluting industries. At the Manhattan Institute (which also had tobacco funding) Walter Olson and Peter Huber also ran a junk-science program. George L Carlo was roped in to front the TASSC Advisory Board, and other science-for-sale entrepreneurs also found it beneficial to use the 'junk-science/sound science' distinction.
|JUNK SCIENCE OPERATIONS|
|Junk Science & Steve Milloy & TASSC|
|Manhattan Inst. & Manhattan (Doc Index)|
|Peter Huber & Walter K Olson|
|sound science & junk science|
|False accusations of junk science|
|Fox News & K. Rupert Murdoch|
Philip Morris's board included News Limited's owner, Rupert Murdoch, who was a close friend of the two Australians who ran the company (R William Murray and Geoffrey C Bible. He was also close to another Norwegian/Australian who was their main disinformation executive Andrew Whist who was, himself, close fiends of Murdoch's nephew by marriage, Bryan Simpson also ran the international tobacco lobby INFOTAB out of Brussels. Murdoch was therefore closely integrated into the pro-smoking world, and his media companies made a lot of their income from cigarette advertising. Murdoch gave Steven Milloy a regular slot on Fox TV, which boosted his profile immensely (he was a good performer)
TASSC was so successful that Philip Morris asked APCO to create a European version, and for a time this project was known as Euro-TASSC. However they found it was easier to shop the project out to Margaret Thatcher's favourite ultra-libertarian think-tank, the Institute of Economic Affairs in London and fund it with UK cigarette companies. The IEA handed the project over to Roger Bate who ran their environmental program, and he created the European Science & Environment Forum. This tried to operate the same way as Milloy's TASSC, but Bate didn't have Milloy's flair for send-ups and humour.
Documents & Timeline
1992 Aug 2 Tom Humber of Burson-Marsteller has reported to Philip Morris about a Manhattan Institute forum which 40 people attended. 
- [This is obviously a PM-funded operation, but not necessarily on junk-science]
TASSC was initially fronted by Garrey Curruthers, the ex Governor of New Mexico. See one of his op-eds 
1993 Feb 17 Ellen Merlo, a disinformation executive at the Philip Morris USA (domestic) company has memod William Campbell, her superior about the results of a brainstorming session they had to combat the EPA ETS Risk Assessment, which had recently branded second-hand smoke as a known (Group A) carcinogen.
Our overriding objective is to discredit the EPA report and to get the EPA to adopt a standard for risk assessment for all products.
To form local coalitions to help us educate the local media, legislators and the public at large about the dangers of "junk science" and to caution them from taking regulatory steps before fully understanding the costs in both economic and human terms. To execute this strategy, we employed a Washington based firm, APCO. (I attach the materials they submitted which contains their assumptions and recommended strategies .) We have approved a budget for eight weeks for them to work on strategies 1 and 3.
- This was the TASSC strategy -- originally called "Restoring Integrity to Science Coalition (RISC).
- A national coalition intended to educate the media, public officials and the public about the dangers of "junk science." Coalition will address credibility of government's scientific studies, risk assessment techniques and misuse of tax dollars.
- Coalition is composed of a board that includes scientists, - business executives from "targeted" industries and other spokespeople seeking to improve quality of EPA research.
- Upon formation of Coalition, key leaders will begin media outreach, e .g., editorial board tours, opinion articles, and brief elected officials in selected states.
- Budget Estimates: APCO Fees -- $25,000 per month (not including expenses) Coalition expenses - $75,000
- Other potential costs - Survey -- $25,000. Research study -- $10, 000. Grassroots outreach - $60,000
1993 A promotion brochure headed "The Junkman" says that the US Department of Energy asked Mr Milloy to lead a study examining the relative roles of science and policy in regulatory risk assessment. 
1993 May 21 Tobacco consultant, Gary L Huber at the University of Texas Health Science Center, has received a recruitment packet from TASSC, and he sends it along to Tony Andrade at Shook Hardy & Bacon, the tobacco lawyer he knows would be interested in investigating such an organisation because of its ETS-cynical position. 
1993 Sep 23 APCO has witten to Philip Morris outlining their proposed activities for the following year. TASSC now has 300 members. The company also has a brief to help the State and Regional Directors (separate project). For TASSC they plan to:
- expand membership among legitimate scientists
- enlist additional financial support for the organisation through
- directly soliciting funding from Fortune 500 companies
- direct mail fund-raising
- research program - monitoring current issues and collecting examples of unsound science.
- develop TASSC Public Information Bureau
- control press-releases, media tours, matte releases for small publications 
1993 Nov 5 Jan Goodheart at PM International is involved in the pre-launch activities of TASSC. The have decided on a media briefing for foreign journalists as part of the TASSC launch. Also to include Latin America. She and Matt Winokur will run another briefing in DC in mid November. 
1993 Nov 15 Philip Morris and APCO are finalising the details of the launch of TASSC. 
1993 Nov 15 Tobacco lawyers, Shook Hardy & Bacon, (maybe kept in the dark on TASSC) reported that The Advancement of Sound Science Coalition, a newly formed nonprofit group of scientist and representatives of university, independent organizations and industry, have lauded the Carpet and Rug Institute response to public concerns about new carpet emissions. 
1993 Nov 15 Philip Morris's corporate affairs staff (Under Jack Lenzi) is putting together material for the national launch of TASSC in Alburquerque, New Mexico on November 18. The were awaiting the final drafts of press packs from APCO. An APCO employee, David Sheon]] would man an 800 phone number under the TASSC name. 
Philip Morris had asked ...
...APCO to develop a list of 8-10 states and possible venues for the nationwide launching of TASSC . In order to ensure the widest exposure for the time and expense, APCO was instructed to forgo the Information Bureau for the remainder of 1993, and to focus instead on an additional city or two for the launch.
What follows is the most current launch site suggestion list essentially fueled by two concerns (local spokesperson, PM political concerns) I recommend the following: New Mexico is a given, add California, Texas, and Colorado and we have not only the west and mountain states covered, but high profile political sites as well. Hit Missouri for the mid-west. That leaves NY or Massachusetts in the east (although we might want to consider Philly if that media environment is less potentially hostile), also high profile political sites.If you have any suggestions, or would like to know who these local experts are, please let me know in the next day or two so we can finalize our targets.
If it gets out that Philip Morris was funding TASSC, they have a Q&A document with ready answers, claiming that TASSC has funding support from across the country from a variety of sources -- and the joint relationship with APCO is just coincidence. 
1993 Nov 18 TASSC gets underway with Garrey Curruthers conducting a major media tour promoting the sound-science/junk-science message. The launch was at the annual meeting of the New Mexico Farm and Livestock Bureau in Alburquerque, and a press conference at the Alburquerque Hilton before farmers and rangers because these are the people we intend to serve.
In the Nov 19 1993 Issue of the Alburquerque Tribune, Lawrence Sphon ran a front page gushing story that TASSC was targeting the
...scientific underpinnings of the Department of Interior's plan to raise livestock grazing fees on public lands in the west. [snip] and also the environmental groups's claim that chemicals were causing ozone depletion. [Also] it will fight against "overly broad rules" designed to ensure safe drinking water, limits on the use of Alar on apples, and cleanup of Dioxin in Missouri.
In the Nov 28 1993 issue of the Denver Post:
"Here's how science might be used to keep science honest.
The stated mission of the nonprofit corporation is to use its own scientific panel to "inform public officials, the media, and the general public about the consequences of inappropriate science," focusing on current examples of "unsound government research used to guide policy decisions. Compliance with environmental regulations cost the nation an incredible $115 billion in 1991 alone"
In the Jan 2 1994 issue of the The Tampa Tribune
"Slogans no substitute for sound science."
[Syndicted from LA Daily News] Among TASSC's goals: to Inform the general public about the consequences of inappropriate science by focusing attention of current examples of unsound government research used to guide policy decisions; to establish an educational out-reach program; and to offer resources to ensure that sound scientific principles are applied. Unfortunately, such skeptics as Bruce Ames, Lois Gold, Dixy Lee Ray and the late Aaron Wildavsky don't get attention with the same ease as star-studded environmental groups and enterprises like Greenpeace and the Walden Project.
The attached supporters list (as of Jan 18 1995) names many part-time lobbyists among the scientists and science entrepreneurs, Bruce Ames, Joseph Bast, George Carlo, Bernard Cohen, Geraldine Cox, James Enstrom, James Fyock, Harvey Gold, Ronald Gots, Paul Grant, Alan Hedge, Gary Huber, Peter Huber, Thomas Jukes, Patrick Michaels, Henry Miller, Alan Moghissi, Donald Stedman, Richard Stroup, Thomas Wyrick -- all well-known in the scientific lobbying world.
- These are just the most obvious among the 520 or so names that are listed. Others of them would be honest but gullible academics; some small-business managers with a chip on their shoulder, and many more corporate inhouse and external lobbyists for polluting organisations.
While APCO actually ran the organisation through Steve Milloy and Garrey Curruthers, there was also an Advisory Board made up of scientific lobbyists (led by George Carlo) who could link TASSC to political organisations and possible future corporate funders.
1993 Dec 15 Philip Morris International staff (Jan Goodheart and Matt Winokur) organised a briefing by TASSC for both New York and Washington DC- based foreign journalists representing the European Community (EC) and East Europe, Mediterranean and Africa (EEMA) media on "the increasing use of poor science as the basis for poor public policy.  They obvious already had plans to extend the junk-science scam on a global scale.
They also have produced a Business Reply Mail card so people can sign up without needing to pay for a stamp.
1994 Mar 25 Tom Hockaday and Neal Cohen of APCO write to Matt Winokur who runs disinformation activities in PM's International Division (prior to this it has been with Ellen Merlo and Vic Han at domestic). They are now proposing a TASSC group in Europe though their connections to the Grey/GCI network and Burson-Marsteller. The issues to be attacked are "Global warming, Nuclear waste disposal, Pesticides, Biotechnology, Eco-labeling, Food processing and packaging. They propose to enlist the support of the ICSE, Michel Saloman and the Heidelberg Appeal which now has 2,500 signatories. 
1995 June The Manhattan Institute has run a 'junk science' conference in Washington DC with Steve Milloy, Peter Huber, Walter Olson and other junk-science promoters. The Institute sends an invoice (presumably for $90,000 see below) to RJ Reynolds. 
1995 April 11 RJ Reynolds has suggested to Brown & Williamson and Philip Morris that they each kick in $30,000 as separate checks to the Manhattan Institute for the recent conference so that the Institute knows that all of the tobacco companies are behind their efforts to promote the idea of junk-science.  
- [The Institute must have been paid $90,000 at least for this conference.]
1995 The Manhattan Institute booklet says about this year.
1995: The Judicial Studies Program took an enormous step forward when lawsuit reform finally vaulted onto the national agenda with the Republicans' Contract with America and with key advances in states like Texas and Illinois. Our Senior Fellows (Peter Huber and Walter Olson) took an active role in this debate, with Walter Olson testifying as the lead witness in the first Congressional hearing on general litigation reform and advising staff members in both Houses. Thanks in no small part to Peter Huber's work, control of "junk science" was another key item on the Congressional agenda. The Institute also published a widely noted monograph on contingency fee reform by our former Senior Fellow Michael Horowitz in collaboration with law professors Jeffrey O'Connell and Lester Brickman. Peter Passell hailed the idea's boldness in a front-page New York Times article, and it has already influenced the Congressional debate on legal reform. We intend to follow up these studies with a steady stream of articles and reports that keep the focus on principled long-term reform of the system.
1995 Jun 13 Peggy Carter at RJ Reynolds is writing to the top misinformation team in the company, Tom Griscom, Chuck Blixt and Dan Donahue about her observations at a recent Manhattan Institute seminar on "Junk Science and the Law".
- Walter Olson and Peter Huber at the Manhattan Institute were both in the pay of Philip Morris and promoting their junk-science propaganda.
She comments on some in attendance:
- Michael Fumento: Mike authored the Investor's Business Daily piece on the EPA's ETS risk assessment that we've been sending out for some time. He told me that piece generated more reaction than anything he's ever done. He's clearly keeping his distance from the industry to preserve his neutral position. Matt Swetonic advises on the QT that work is in progress to nationally syndicate Mike as a science columnist.
- Steve Milloy: Milloy included in his remarks a recap of the problems with the EPA's ETS risk assessment, and told me privately that we're really getting "screwed" on this issue. He asked me if I knew CRS was working on an evaluation of the EPA's assessment; seems he and Steve Redhead (the CRS official who contacted us) are good friends. He characterized Redhead as an "anti." Dr. Redhead told Milloy last week that their report was going to require "significant rewrite."
In response to my question about why, he indicated Redhead felt the only issue was in homes with high exposures over long periods of time. He clearly did not want to be more precise, and apparently felt that was clue enough. Perhaps Chris Coggins can tea-leaf read if - that means CRS was convinced to reevaluate their position on high exposures.
- C. Stephen Redhead was a physiologist who worked for the Congressional Research Center who became embroiled in controversy over the Gravelle CRS report which attacked the EPA's anti-tobacco stance (she was actually an Economics Policy analyst).  Redhead had already, reported on Mortality and Economic Costs Attributable to Smoking and Alcohol Abuse in April 1993. 
TASSC transferred to RJ Reynolds
1996 May /E In mid-1996 TASSC was partly-exposed as a fake "grassroots science" organization being funded by Philip Morris. The operation, together with Steve Milloy, who ran both the organization and its junkscience.com web-site , were transferred to the control of Reynolds under thomas Griscom so that Philip Morris could deny involvement.  Griscom subcontracted the administration of this "sound-science" operation to Jody Powell, ex-press secretary to former U.S. President Jimmy Carter, and Sheila Tate, Nancy Reagan's adviser, at the Powell-Tate lobby shop. During this time RJR and Powell-Tate also jointly handled the promotion and distribution of Milloy's book "Science without Sense   Similar books promoting pro-tobacco positions were commissioned, and payment laundered, through other "think-tanks" that employed well-known academic authors. 
1996 June 7 Steve Milloy of TASSC is now e-mailing some of his copy to RJ Reynolds, but still using his his CAIS office E-mail (email@example.com). The Email carries a junk-science address under the heading
- From: firstname.lastname@example.org
- To: email@example.com
This is a 9 page document addressed initially to Chris Coggins at RJ Reynolds -- it consisted of the index for the Junk Science web page for the week of June 6 1996.
He is focussing on President Bill Clinton's problems with Paula Jones and linking the scandals to Agent Orange. This is basically expanded headlines plus a smart Milloy comment tacked on, although some items on hazardous waste claims are expanded into short articles.
He also praises Marcia Angell at the New England Journal of Medicine who has published a special article...
... railing about the travesty of the breast implant controversy, including the associated junk science . Of course, I applaud Dr. Angell for taking notice of junk science -- in fact she links junk science with other issues including asbestos, diethylstilbestrol (DES), Benedictin, the Dalkon shield, Agent Orange, Alar-treated apples, radon and electromagnetic fields.
- NOTE: Milloy's original email still carries the EOP Group fax number ... so the EOP Group, APCO, and Philip Morris are all behind the Milloy-junk-science scam. He also seems to need RJR approval for his activities.
1997 Jan 7 Milloy is dealing with Seth Moskowitz, the PR head at RJ Reynolds. They are trying to drum up a story to counter the claim that Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) has a low level correlation with smoking mothers. They suggest that help might come from Philip Witorsch of Georgetown University and IAPAG.  Mary E Ward, one of RJ Reynolds 'core constituency of disinformation executives and lawyers', might be the one to help. 
1997 March Steve Milloy took over officially as 'Executive Director' of The Advancement of Sound Science Coalition (TASSC). He had previously been hired as the 'behind the scenes contact' who could answer press questions. For a while Garrey Curruthers continued to parade himself as 'President' and 'Founder'. TASSC had a Management Board (aka Advisory Board) which was listed on the letterhead, and a Scientific Advisory Board
The Management Board listed in the TASSC letterhead (sometimes called an "Advisory Board" Not a SAB) , had different names at different times. George Carlo's name, for instance, never appears on the letterhead, but he is listed by APCO (the PR company which ran the operation behind the scenes) as a member of the Scientific Advisory Board. |
This Board appears to have consisted of a variable list with at least 7 well-known tobacco industry 'consultants', only a few of whom were 'scientists':
- Mickey Edwards, Republican politician
- Michael Gough, OTA scientist/dioxin now with Cato Institute (Milloy's friend)
- James Steele, ex-Ass. Surgeon General,
- Bruce Ames, Berkeley biochemist, libertarian zealot
- Michael Fumento, journalist-for-hire
- John D Graham, Harvard Center for Risk Analysis
- Lester Lave, Carnegie Mellon economist, HCRA associate,
- M Alice Ottoboni, retired from the Calif Dept of Public Health,
- Frederick Seitz, ex-Rockefeller Uni; professional climate skeptic; Oregon Petition; George C Marshall Institute; SEPP; and RJ Reynolds consultant
- Clayton Yeutter, trade representative and Sec of Agriculture; politician for hire.
TASSC's ScientificAdvisory Boardappears to have been a cabal of think-tank operators, industry supporters and professional corporate lobbyists, including:
- George Carlo, of Health and Environmental Science
- Hugh Ellsaesser, retired meterologist; Lawrence Livermore nuclear labs; George C Marshall Inst.; "Wise Use" group; climate denier
- Patrick Michaels, Uni of Virginia; SEPP; climate skeptic; fossil fuel consultant
- Alan Moghissi, science-for-sale operator; ILSI; ACSH
- Michael Fox, dubious nuclear scientist; newspaper columnist; ACSH; climate denier
- S. Fred Singer, SEPP; ICSE; Heidelberg Appeal; chief climate denier
- Michael Sanera, Barry Goldwater Institute; ALEC; Reagan Admin aide; 'Wise Use' coalition founder,
This summary, records the claim that in 1997 Milloy...
- launched a full-scale attack on restrictive air-quality standards, with an full-page ad in The Washington Post signed by 100 physicians and scientists.
- releases an open letter to world leaders signed by 500 physicians and scientists attacking the Kyoto Conference global warming treaty.
- attacked the EPA for its use of guideline standards of epidemiology which are inferior to GEP.
- held a junk-science conference in Phoenix, and a media summit on health scares at the North Carolina State University run by TASSC enthusiast Dr Robert Entman. [Entman was a professor of Journalism. TASSC had previously sponsored his report on The Role of Science in Reporting of Public Health Policy Controversies During 1995.]
- ran roundtable meetings for lobbyists and a series of editorial board briefings on silicone breast implants, hosted by Dr Elizabeth Connell. [She also travelled to the UK to lobby the new Labor British Health Minister.] 
- Elizabeth Connell was ex-FDA, and Emory Uni. In 2003 she was also a senior counselor for the tort-reform advocacy group Citizens Against Lawsuit Abuse (CALA) which was funded by Philip Morris. This was a subsidiary of the ATRA 'tort reform/product liability' coalition also run by APCO.
1997 Aug 14 Steve Milloy as Executive Director of TASSC.is writing to Chris Proctor at BAT; they had met at a UK conference last week (organised by Keith Gretton of BAT (Issues Management). He is in expansion mode and wants funding for two new projects that BAT has shown an interested in:
- Latin American Junk Science Home Page. A spanish-language internet site. He will use Latin American journalist Roberto Inglesias. The Estimated budget is $104,600 pa.
- International Forum for Public Health Priotiries. This will gain credibility through links to Dr Chris Grande, executive director, of International Trauma and Critical Care Society (ITACCS), who has already downplayed the importance of ETS at a US Senate hearing. Estimated Budget is $295,000 - funded through TASSC. Other sources would help funding later.
1997 Sept 15 British newspapers are featuring junk-science stories generated in the UK by Roger Bate (Euro-TASSC/ESEF). 
1997 Oct 8 Milloy is still dealing with Sharon Boyse at BAT. He sends her two articles from the New England Journal of Medicine, and another from Forbes magazine which was co-written by his friend Bonner R Cohen (EPA Watch editor and TASSC affiliate) It was predictably an attack on the EPA and its Director Carol M Browner. 
1997 Dec 18 Milloy is contacting British lawyer-executive Chris Proctor (C&B and BAT) and BAT Issues Manager Keith Gretton. He is justifying his payments by sending them a photocopy of an editorial in the Washington Times and a press release he has just put out on Hong Kong flu. The press release states that : "TASSC is a not-for-profit organization of scientists, former public policy officials and private citizens interested in the use of sound science in public policy."
- Gretton and Proctor were disinformation executives who worked under Sharon Boyse at BAT until she was transferred to Brown & Williamson in the USA.
1998 Apr 8 John Berlau or Investor's Business Daily has written a review of a WHO study on passive smoking which he believes is an "unfounded risk". He quotes extensively from Michael Gough who he credits with being "a senior associate and program manager at Congress's now defunct Office of Technology Assessment" who is now "director of risk and science studies at the free-market Cato Institute" who he says "can hardly be accused of being a tool of the tobacco industry..." (which he clearly was.) Steve Milloy is promoting this. Gough was his friend and lobbying associate. 
- The Investor's Business Daily was an easy outlet for tobacco and other industry propaganda through journalists Michael Gough and Michael Fumento
1998 /E Steve Milloy has created the Regulatory Impact Analysis Project which was actually a company. The promotional brochure is headed: "CH0ICES IN RISK ASSESSMENT: THE ROLE OF SCIENCE POLICY IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL RISK MANAGEMENT PROCESS, and it is being operated out of the old TASSC office at 1155 Connecticut Avenue, NW Suite 300, Washington DC. 
1998 Sep The BAT Corporate funding plan for 1999 (and following years) is with the Corporate and Regulatory Affairs (CORA) division of British American Tobacco (BAT). CORA has produced a long and detailed budget. They have allocated
- (# 6A61.814) Support for International establishment of TASSC - £50,000
- Citzens for the Integrity of Science £50K in 1998, £75K in 1999, £50K in 2000, and £51.8K in 2001. (See page 321324329)
We provided TASSC with a grant of $ 50,000 in late 1997. On an assumption of continuous funding, we would have been due to award a grant your new organization, Citizens for the Integrity of Science, around this time in 1998 - this time for the agreed sum of $60,000.
However, due to a shortfall in this year's budget, we would prefer an alteration in timing that would (as far as my calculations tell me!) result in the same level of support but simply change billing times. We would propose to give CIS a grant of $30,000 at this time, in effect 6 months' support. Then, in April 1999, a full annual commitment of $ 60,000 would be available to you. If future support continues, grants would then be payable to you in April of subsequent years.
If you could send me some information about your new organization thatwould be helpful, as I'm sure some of our government affairs people who get involved in grassroots activities at state level will be interested. 
- There is no way anyone could pretend that this was in support of the ideology or the program of the CIS. She didn't even know what it was pretending to do.
1989 Nov 15 British-American Tobacco's Adrian Payne, at Staines in the UK is feeding some information to Milloy that he obviously thinks may be useful. The National Cancer Institute is publishing an article "Molecular Link Found Between Cigarette Smoke and Kidney Cancer. 
1999 Jan 6-7 Seth W Moskowitz now at the head of RJ Reynolds Public Relations division has written to Milloy (at his cais.com email address) and he replies. Moskowitz sends him a WHO "Russell article" on a World Health Conference on passive smoking and ways to reduce kids exposure, but he is not to use it until RJ Reynolds figures out how they "can leverage it best". His contact details at this time are: Steven J. Milloy, Publisher, The Junk Science Home Page, http://www.junkscience.com, 1155 Connecticut Ave., N.W., Suite 300, Washington, D.C. 20036, Tel: 202-467-8586, Fax: 202-467-0768, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org 
1999 Jul 8 Seth Miskowitz has been on holdiays and thanks Milloy for sending details or an upcoming study. 
1999 July 22 BAT in the UK is sending Milloy a number of abstracts on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome to have fun with by sending them up. Whoever sent this long list, also blind copies them to Sharon Boyse who has migrated to work for BAT's subsidiary, Brown & Williamson, at Louisville. 
1999 Sept 16: The Science & Regulation division of the British-American Tobacco (BAT) company had expenditure details and a budget forecast for the following year. These figures are well below the previous outlays of this division. Notable line items were:
- WHO Project - this had a budget allocation for consultants of £149K
- The junk-science think-tank European Science and Environment Forum was to get £118K (other funding hidden)
- Steven J Milloy of TASSC was listed to receive £57K [Note he also ran the Citizens for the Integrity of Science think tank (Below)
- Professor Deepak Lai was getting £36K for various Economics papers on WHO and World Bank projects
- Smoking & Health - spent £ 239K, mostly on "Commissioning new reviews of science".
- Statistician Peter N Lee was funded £45K for one project, £44K for maintaining a database, and £18K for two book projects
- The Canadian scam artist, John Luik was being paid £18K as a final payment on his 'Plain Packaging Project', and another £30,000 for a Book on Formula 1 racing.
- Corrupt scientist Gio B Gori and his Health Policy Center were to get £22K for one project, and another £40K for working on the GEP project and the Toxicology Forum.
- Francis JC Roe was owed three amounts via Roe Byfiekt (??) (also a Graeme Roe)
- Professor Ian Hindmarch's £4,000 fees were paid via '"Psychopharma
- One of the Witorsch brothers (probably Philip) was to be paid £31K via the CEHHT.
- Think Tank Programs -- they listed two:
- Product Issues
- General consultancies had been allocated £36,900
- Paper on rights, moderation and mortality - £ 39,000
- Weinberg Group were putting together a think tank on ingredients for BAT outlay of £ 9,000. Also budgeted for South America £4K
- Understanding ETS had roadshows and people employed to criticise the WHO, for a budget of £ 51,700
- Public Smoking & Health Policy
- Marketing Freedoms (right to advertise and promote cigarettes)
- International Advertising Association (IAA) received membership and 'programme support' payments of £130K
- World Federation of Advertisers (WFA) received membership and 'programme support' payments of £60K
- International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) received membership and 'programme support' payments of £60K
1999 Milloy and Michael Gough have written a book, published by the Cato Institute (and funded by Philip Morris) called "Silencing Science". 
- Powell Tate Activity Report R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co. December 1996 Report. December, 1996. 2 pp. Bates No. 520526642/6643
- Powell Tate Activity Report R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co. January 1997 January, 1997. 2 pp. Bates No. 520526639/6640
- Smith MD, Cato Institute Cato Institute Email letter. January 19, 1995. Bates No. 528016094
- Bennet JT, George Mason University This letter summarizes our discussion on August 18 regarding our activities during the coming year. Letter. 1 pg. August 31, 1995. Bates No. 517118301