Manhattan Institute for Policy Research
The Manhattan Institute (MI) is a right-wing 501(c)(3) non-profit think tank founded in 1978 by William J. Casey, who later became President Ronald Reagan's CIA director. It is an associate member of the State Policy Network.
It is actually the direct successor to the International Center for Economic Policy Studies (ICEPS) which was founded by the english chicken-king, Sir Antony Fisher, in 1977. He had previously set up the Institute for Economic Affairs (IEA) in London, and before moving to the USA he had become a principle advisor to Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher.
The incorporation documents for ICEPS were signed by the prominent attorney and Wall Street speculator, William J Casey, who also served as the first chairman. Before going on to take over as director of the CIA, be also drew up the founding documents for both the National Review and the National Strategic Information Center where he became director of the NSIC also. 
According to the Manhattan Institute's own puff-piece, it is "focused on promoting free-market principles" and has a mission to "develop and disseminate new ideas that foster greater economic choice and individual responsibility."
"The Manhattan Institute concerns itself with such things as 'welfare reform' (dismantling social programs), 'faith-based initiatives' (blurring the distinction between church and state), and 'education reform' (destroying public education)," Kurt Nimmo wrote October 10, 2002, in CounterPunch. It was also recognised as leading the Republican/corporate efforts to destroy Ralph Nader and his supporters, in the 1990s.
- 1 News and Controversies
- 2 Immigration: Covering All the Bases
- 3 Ties to the Koch Brothers
- 4 Ties to the American Legislative Exchange Council
- 5 Financiers of Neo-conservatism
- 6 War on Terrorism: "Axis of Evil"
- 7 Ties to Big Tobacco
- 8 Junk Science
- 9 History
- 10 Funding
- 11 Core Financials
- 12 Other Affiliations
- 13 Personnel
- 14 Contact Information
- 15 Resources and Articles
News and Controversies
MIPR Called Out for Blocking Action on Climate Change
In July of 2016, nineteen U.S. Senators delivered a series of speeches denouncing climate change denial from 32 organizations with links to fossil-fuel interests, including the Manhattan Institute for Public Policy. Sen. Whitehouse (RI-D), who led the effort to expose "the web of denial" said in his remarks on the floor that the purpose was to,
- "shine a little light on the web of climate denial and spotlight the bad actors in the web, who are polluting our American discourse with phony climate denial. This web of denial, formed over decades, has been built and provisioned by the deep-pocketed Koch brothers, by ExxonMobil, by Peabody coal, and by other fossil fuel interests. It is a grim shadow over our democracy in that it includes an electioneering effort that spends hundreds of millions of dollars in a single election cycle and threatens any Republican who steps up to address the global threat of climate change. . . . [I]t is long past time we shed some light on the perpetrators of this web of denial and expose their filthy grip on our political process. It is a disgrace, and our grandchildren will look back at this as a dirty time in America’s political history because of their work.”
Cutting Ties over Pension Plans
Cliff Asness, Henry Kravis, and Thomas McWilliams said they would cut ties with the Manhattan Institute in 2013 over the organization's calls to abolish defined benefit public pension plans. According to the New York Post, "The moves come after the American Federation of Teachers in April (2013) called out 33 top money managers for backing efforts to eliminate public pensions -- while soliciting their investment dollars."
Asness, who is the founder of AQR, said he would not renew his term on Manhattan's board of trustees when it expires in 2014, and McWilliams, who is a managing partner at Court Square, resigned from the Institute's board.
Meanwhile, one hedge-fund manager and Institute board member, Dan Loeb, refused to back down or give in to calls from the AFT to resolve his apparent conflict of interest -- that is, his position at Third Point, which wants access to pension fund investments, and his position at Manhattan, which supports privatization of pension funds and government services.
Immigration: Covering All the Bases
In 2007, the New York Times reported, "In the think-tank world, a leading advocate of a path to citizenship for illegal immigrants is Tamar Jacoby..., an expert at the conservative Manhattan Institute. One of the most implacable voices against any such 'amnesty' is Heather Mac Donald -- also of the Manhattan Institute."
While many of the Institute's fellows do not hold an anti-immigration stance, they do oppose "government programs intended to accommodate immigrant concerns, such as bi-lingual education."
"The organization has attacked . . . immigrant support programs as obstacles to full social integration and to the benefits of the market system." However, the Institute is in favor of reforming the U.S. immigration system and has written of the economic benefits of migration.
Ties to the Koch Brothers
The Manhattan Institute has received funding from the Koch brothers. The Claude R. Lambe Foundation, one of the Koch Family Foundations, reported giving $2,075,000 to the Manhattan Institute between 2001 and 2012, the last year for which data is available. The Charles G. Koch Foundation gave $100,000 to the Institute in 2012.
Charles Koch is the right-wing billionaire owner of Koch Industries. As one of the richest people in the world, he is a key funder of the right-wing infrastructure, including the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) and the State Policy Network (SPN). In SourceWatch, key articles on Charles Koch and his late brother David include: Koch Brothers, Americans for Prosperity, Stand Together Chamber of Commerce, Stand Together, Koch Family Foundations, Koch Universities, and I360.
Ties to the American Legislative Exchange Council
The Manhattan Institute's Senior Fellow and Director of its Center for Medical Progress, Paul Howard, spoke at the 2011 American Legislative Exchange Council Annual Conference in a Workshop titled "Rationing By Any Other Name: Medicare's Independent Payment Advisory Board." He co-led the panel with the Pacific Research Institute's Director of Health Care Studies, John Graham (the Pacific Research Institute is also a State Policy Network member).
ALEC is a corporate bill mill. It is not just a lobby or a front group; it is much more powerful than that. Through ALEC, corporations hand state legislators their wishlists to benefit their bottom line. Corporations fund almost all of ALEC's operations. They pay for a seat on ALEC task forces where corporate lobbyists and special interest reps vote with elected officials to approve “model” bills. Learn more at the Center for Media and Democracy's ALECexposed.org, and check out breaking news on our ExposedbyCMD.org site.
Financiers of Neo-conservatism
The "financing of neo-conservatism doesn't come from D.C.", Mark Gerson is quoted as saying in the April 27, 2003, New York Observer. "Instead, said Mr. Gerson, it comes from New York moneymen like Bruce Kovner, chairman of the Caxton Corporation, and Roger Hertog, the vice chairman of Alliance Capital Management. Last year, both financiers helped fund a new newspaper, The New York Sun, now fighting its anti-liberal battle with its New York Times –counterprogrammed slogan, 'A Different Point of View.' Both Mr. Kovner and Mr. Hertog also chipped in to join neoliberal Martin Peretz as co-owners of The New Republic. Mr. Kovner and Mr. Hertog, as enlightened neoconservative businessmen-intellectuals, are also on the board [of trustees] of the Manhattan Institute, where Mr. Gerson and William Kristol are also trustees, as well as the Washington, D.C.–based American Enterprise Institute."
War on Terrorism: "Axis of Evil"
In 2001, David Frum left the Manhattan Institute "to join the Bush administration as a speechwriter. It was there that he coined the term "axis of evil" to describe Iraq, Iran and North Korea. This became the signature phrase of President George W. Bush's 2002 State of the Union speech and shorthand for Bush's war on terrorism."
Ties to Big Tobacco
|Documents from the tobacco archives,|
Also documents on junk-science
Manhattan (Doc Index)
Tobacco industry documents reveal relationships between the Manhattan Institute and tobacco companies. The Institute sought funding from tobacco companies, including:
- August 1986 funding by Brown & Williamson,
- August 1987-88 RJ Reynolds gave them $10,000 as an ANNUAL contribution 
- October 1990, Lorillard, Inc. budgeted a $4,000 contribution to the Manhattan Institute
- 1995 Philip Morris budgeted $25,000 for the Institute in 1995.
- Oct 1996 Lorillard gave the same amount in 1996.
- August 1998 R.J. Reynolds.
In August 1992 The Manhattan Institute ran a conference on "The Litigation Explosion" in support of a book being produced by their Senior Fellow, Walter K Olson.  for the tobacco industry.  They have already held a workshop on product liability in Chicago. 
A 1997 R.J. Reynolds memo reveals RJR's intent to use the Manhattan Institute as a third party to help the company reduce the public's perception of danger from exposure to secondhand smoke:
- "Devise ways to educate the public about epidemiology and put risk in perspective. For example, work with Steven J. Milloy, Michael Fumento, CEI Competitive Enterprise Institute, the Manhattan Institute and others to put together a 1/2-hour or 1-hour TV show explaining epi[demiology] and risk. Create an epi/risk website to educate the general public, maybe working with the Harvard School of Public Health. Do the same for journalists."
Peter W Huber one of the key 'scholars' at the Manhattan Institute wrote "Galileo's Revenge: Junk Science in the Courtroom" which was part of Philip Morris's on-going program to attack some aspects of health and environmental science in general. This was in support of their program centered on two of APCO]'s creations, The Advancement for Sound Science Coalition (TASSC) now run by Steve Milloy and Science & Environmental Policy Project run by S. Fred Singer and his wife Candace Crandall
The Manhattan Institute was founded by Antony Fisher with William J Casey who later became Ronald Reagan's campaign director and head of the CIA. Jane Mayer documents this in her book Dark Money when she writes, "Fisher would go on to found another 150 or so free-market think tanks around the world, including the Manhattan Institute in New York, to which both Scaife and other conservative philanthropists would become major contributors. The Sarah Scaife Foundation in fact for many years was the Manhattan Institute's single largest contributor. The donations paid off, from Scaife's viewpoint, when they helped launch the careers of the conservative social critic Murray and the supply-side economics guru George Gilder, whose arguments against welfare programs and taxes had huge impacts on ordinary Americans."
The Institute describes its policy agenda over its 25-year history as having spanned "taxes, welfare, crime, the legal system, urban life, race, education, and many other topics. We have won new respect for market-oriented policies and helped make reform a reality."
In its publication Buying a Movement, People for the American Way describes the Manhattan Institute's agenda as advocating for "privatization of sanitation services and infrastructure maintenance, deregulation in the area of environmental and consumer protection, school vouchers and cuts in governmental spending on social welfare programs; it is a preferred source of information'" for then-New York City Mayor Rudolph W. Giuliani.
The organization describes its communication strategy as being based around the strengths of its "senior fellows": "Their provocative books, reviews, interviews, speeches, articles, and op-ed pieces have been the main vehicle for communicating our message."
"Books are central to our approach. We make every effort to ensure that our authors are published by respected trade publishers and that their books receive as much review attention and publicity as possible. Nothing allows us to make a sustained, comprehensive argument more effectively," the website states.
Charles Murray -- an author whom CounterPunch calls "a far right ideologue who wrote The Bell Curve in 1984, a book that essentially argues black people are genetically and intellectually inferior to white people" -- was based at the Manhattan Institute while writing the book Losing Ground.
Between 1985 and 2005, the Institute received $20,579,883 (unadjusted for inflation) in a total of 294 grants from a small group of right-wing foundations.
The following organizations had given donations to the Manhattan Institute as of 2005:
- Armstrong Foundation
- Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
- Brady Education Foundation, Inc.
- Castle Rock Foundation
- Earhart Foundation
- F.M. Kirby Foundation
- Gilder Foundation
- Gordon and Mary Cain Foundation
- Hickory Foundation
- Jaquelin Hume Foundation
- John Templeton Foundation
- John M. Olin Foundation, Inc.
- JM Foundation
- Koch Family Foundations (Claude R. Lambe Foundation)
- Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation
- Randolph Foundation
- Roe Foundation
- Ruth and Lovett Peters Foundation
- Scaife Foundations (Sarah Mellon Scaife, Carthage)
- Searle Freedom Trust
- Shelby Cullom Davis Foundation
- Smith Richardson Foundation
- Walton Family Foundation
- William E. Simon Foundation
- William H. Donner Foundation
- Total Revenue: $2,711,476
- Total Expenses: $2,475,962
- Net Assets: $2,316,057
- Total Revenue: $4,180,433
- Total Expenses: $4,357,518
- Net Assets: $2,020,543
- Total Revenue: $17,408,881
- Total Expenses: $15,638,756
- Net Assets: $19,337,202
- Total Revenue: $17,210,753
- Total Expenses: $13,949,343
- Net Assets: $18,671,181
- Total Revenue: $13,559,374
- Total Expenses: $14,284,045
- Net Assets: $15,317,383
- Total Revenue: $14,873,971
- Total Expenses: $13,417,313
- Net Assets: $14,754,647
Board of Trustees
As of July 2016:
- Paul E. Singer, Chairman of the Board, Elliott Management Corporation
- Michael J. Fedak, Vice Chairman
- Charles H. Brunie, (Chairman emeritus), Brunie Associates
- Lawrence J. Mone, President
- Andrew Cader, New York City
- Ann J. Charters, New York City
- Anthony P. Coles, DLA Piper
- Ravenel Curry, Eagle Capital Management, LLC
- Timothy G. Dalton, Jr., Dalton, Greiner, Hartman, Maher & Co.
- Sean M. Fieler, Analyst, Equinox Management Partners, L.P.
- Kenneth M. Garschina, Principal, Mason Capital Management
- Kenneth B. Gilman, New York City
- George Gilder, Program director at one time
- Harvey Golub, Chairman, Miller Buckfire & Co., LLC
- Maurice R. Greenberg, Chairman & CEO, C.V. STARR & Co., Inc.
- Fleur Harlan, New York City
- William Hammett, President
- Roger Kimball, The New Criterion
- William Kristol, Editor & Founder, The Weekly Standard
- Daniel Loeb, Third Point, LLC
- David Malpass, Encima Global, LLC
- Betsy McCaughey (Elizabeth) Senior Fellow in Judicial Studies
- Rebekah Mercer
- Jay H. Newman, Elliott Management Corporation
- Rodney Nichols, New York City
- Nick Ohnell, Ohnell Family Foundation
- Robert Rosenkranz, Chairman, Delphi Financial Group, Inc.
- Nathan E. Saint-Amand, M.D., New York City
- Thomas W. Smith, Prescott Investors
- Donald G. Tober, Chairman of the Board, Sugar Foods Corporation
- Bruce G. Wilcox, Chairman, Management Committee, Cumberland Associates, LLC
- Kathryn S. Wylde, President & CEO, The Partnership for New York City
- Richard Gilder, (Chairman emeritus), Gilder, Gagnon, Howe & Co. LLC
- Roger Hertog, (Chairman emeritus), New York City
- Dietrich Weismann, (Chairman emeritus), Weismann Associates, LLC
- Clifford S. Asness, AQR Capital Management, LLC
- Brian Miller
Key staff as of July 2016:
- Lawrence J. Mone, President
- Vanessa Mendoza, Executive Vice President
- Brian Anderson, Editor, City Journal
- Michael Barreiro, Vice President of Operations
- Leigh Harrington, Vice President, Communications & Marketing
- Howard Husock, Vice President, Research & Publications
- Troy Senik, Vice President, Policy & Programs
Former Senior Staff
- Michael Allegretti, Vice President of Programs
- James Copland, Director, Center for Legal Policy
- Molly M. Harsh, Director of Programs, Adam Smith Society
- Timothy Hoefer, Director, Empire Center for New York State Policy
- Paul Howard, Director, Center for Medical Progress
- Jessica Perry, Director of Development
- Judyth Pendell Exec Director, 1999
- Donna Thompson Special Projects director, 1999
Fellows and Scholars
As of July 2016:
- Brian C. Anderson, Editor, City Journal
- Michael Knox Beran, Contributing Editor, City Journal
- Ben Boychuk, Associate Editor, City Journal
- Robert Bryce, Senior Fellow, Center for Energy Policy and the Environment
- Oren Cass, Senior Fellow
- Dr. Tom Coburn, Advisor, Project FDA
- James R. Copland, Senior Fellow and Director, Center for Legal Policy
- Theodore Dalrymple, Dietrich Weismann Fellow and Contributing Editor, City Journal
- Daniel DiSalvo, Senior Fellow
- Max Eden, Senior Fellow
- Stephen D. Eide, Senior Fellow
- Richard A. Epstein, Visiting Scholar
- Andrew C. von Eschenbach, Advisor & Former Chairman, Project FDA
- Yevgeniy Feyman, Adjunct Fellow
- Ted Frank, Adjunct Fellow,
- Diana Furchtgott-Roth, Senior Fellow and Director, Economics21
- Nicole Gelinas, Senior Fellow and Contributing Editor, City Journal
- Edward Glaeser, Senior Fellow and Contributing Editor, City Journal
- Isaac Gorodetski, Director, State and Local Policy
- Victor Davis Hanson, Contributing Editor, City Journal
- Stephanie Hessler, Adjunct Fellow
- Paul Howard, Senior Fellow and Director, Health Policy
- Peter W. Huber, Senior Fellow
- Howard Husock, Vice President, Research & Publications and Contributing Editor, City Journal
- Kay S. Hymowitz, Senior Fellow and Contributing Editor, City Journal
- George L. Kelling, Senior Fellow
- Heather Mac Donald, Thomas W. Smith Fellow and Contributing Editor, City Journal
- Myron Magnet, Editor-at-large, City Journal - became Newt Gingrich adviser
- Steven Malanga, Senior Fellow and Senior Editor, City Journal
- Jim Manzi, Senior Fellow
- Josh B. McGee, Senior Fellow
- Edmund J. McMahon, Senior Fellow
- FJ Macchiarola
- Jared Meyer, Senior Fellow
- Judith Miller, Adjunct Fellow and Contributing Editor, City Journal
- Mark Mills, Senior Fellow
- Lawrence J. Mone, President
- Charles Murray
- Walter Olson, Legal critic
- Aaron M. Renn, Senior Fellow and Contributing Editor, City Journal
- Jason L. Riley, Senior Fellow
- Charles Upton Sahm, Director, Education Policy
- Peter D. Salins, Senior Fellow
- Fred Siegel, Senior Fellow and Contributing Editor, City Journal
- Guy Sorman, Contributing Editor, City Journal
- Sol Stern, Contributing Editor, City Journal
- John Tierney, Contributing Editor, City Journal
- Jacob Vigdor, Adjunct Fellow
- Adam White, Adjunct Fellow and Contributing Editor, City Journal
- Scott Winship, Walter B. Wriston Fellow
- Marcus A. Winters, Senior Fellow
See also: Manhattan Institute senior scholars
Former Fellows and Scholars
- Rick Baker, Adjunct Fellow, Center for State and Local Leadership (St. Petersburg, Florida)
- Claire Berlinski, Contributing Editor, City Journal (Istanbul, Turkey)
- Lester Brickman, Visiting Scholar, Center for Legal Policy (New York City)
- Richard C. Dreyfuss, Senior Fellow, Center for State and Local Leadership (Pennsylvania)
- Richard Greenwald, Adjunct Fellow, Center for State and Local Leadership (Newark, NJ)
- Stefan Kanfer, Contributing Editor, City Journal
- Andrew Klavan, Contributing Editor, City Journal (Los Angeles, CA)
- Joel Kotkin, Contributing Editor, City Journal (California)
- John Leo, Senior Fellow, Center for the American University (New York City)
- Herbert London, Senior Fellow, Center for the American University (New York City)
- John H. McWhorter, Contributing Editor, City Journal (New York City)
- James Piereson, Senior Fellow, Director, Center for the American University (New York City)
- Avik Roy, Senior Fellow, Manhattan Institute (New York City)
- Harry Stein, Contributing Editor, City Journal (New York City)
- William J. Stern, Contributing Editor, City Journal (New York City)
- Marcus Winters, Senior Fellow, Center for State and Local Leadership (New York City)
- Luigi Zingales, Contributing Editor, City Journal (Chicago, IL)
52 Vanderbilt Avenue, 2nd Floor
New York, NY 10017
Phone: 212 599-7000
FAX: 212 599-3494
Manhattan Institute Websites
Resources and Articles
Related SourceWatch Articles
- American Legislative Exchange Council
- State Policy Network
- John J. DiIulio Jr.
- Judith Miller
- Pete Hegseth
- Vets for Freedom Action Fund
- Matt Taibbi, "Looting the Pension Funds," Rolling Stone, September 26, 2013.
- Stephanie Mencimer, "Another Reporter Falls for the Manhattan Institute," The Tortellini, February 6, 2007.
- Darvin Dowdy, "Tamar Jacoby - At It Again...," Street Level Blog/Townhall.com, May 17, 2007.
- "Welcome to the PR Machine," Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry: A Closer Look Blogspot, June 7, 2007.
- Frank R. Lichtenberg, "Yes, New Drugs Save Lives," Washington Post, July 11, 2007.
- Patrick Sullivan, "Bloomberg Record on Education Attacked by Manhattan Institute Scholar," NYC Public School Parents Blogspot, July 24, 2007.
- Jay Matthews, "English, Math Time Up in 'No Child' Era. 44% of Schools Polled Reduce Other Topics," Washington Post, July 25, 2007.
- Lawrence Mone, Letter to the Editor: "A Think Tank's Scholarship," Washington Post, August 8, 2007.
- News Release: Vice President's Remarks on Iraq and the War on Terror at the Manhattan Institute for Policy Research, The Grand Hyatt New York, New York, New York, Office of the Vice President, January 19, 2006.
- Jay P. Greene and Marcus A. Winters, "The Boys Left Behind. The gender graduation gap," National Review Online, April 19, 2006.
- "Met police chief defiant over job," BBC Online, June 21, 2006.
- Michael Barbaro and Stephanie Strom, "Wal-Mart Finds an Ally in Conservatives," New York Times, September 8, 2006. re WalMart Stores
- Jim Horn, "Manhattan Institute Bogus Research on Florida Retention Policy," Schools Matter Blogspot, October 12, 2006.
- Stephanie Mencimer, "Illinois Takes Another Beating," The Tortellini, October 18, 2006.
- Heather Mac Donald, "Too Nice for Our Own Good," Wall Street Journal (Manhattan Institute), January 6, 2005.
- Heather Mac Donald, "Heather Mac Donald responds to Marty Lederman on Abu Ghraib and U.S. interrogation policies," City Journal, January 13, 2005.
- Alex Chadwick, "Defending Bush's Treatment of Enemy Combatants," NPR, January 24, 2005.
- Howard Kurtz, "Writer Backing Bush Plan Had Gotten Federal Contract," Washington Post, January 26, 2005.
- Eric Boehlert, "Third columnist caught with hand in the Bush till. Michael McManus, conservative author of the syndicated column 'Ethics & Religion,' received $10,000 to promote a marriage initiative," Salon, January 27, 2005.
- "McManus and Gallagher have more in common than Bush administration contracts," Media Matters for America, January 28, 2005.
- "BG Medicine Participates as a Member of the '21st Century FDA Task Force'," BG Medicine, March 7, 2005.
- Philip Weiss, "George Soros’s Right-Wing Twin," New York Magazine, August 1, 2005: "Multibillionaire commodities king Bruce Kovner is the patron saint of the neoconservatives, the new Lincoln Center’s crucial Medici, owner of a vast Fifth Avenue mansion—and the most powerful New Yorker you’ve never heard of."
- Press Release: "Earned Legalization and Increased Border Security is Key to Immigration Reform According to Republican Voters: New Poll," Manhattan Institute, October 17, 2005.
- Craig Nelson, "MI: turning corporate cash into influence. Phony Poll-oney: The latest attempt to mislead from Ed Goeas and that clever Tamar Jacoby," projectusa, October 18, 2005.
- Nicholas Confessore, "Giuliani Guide Is Bloomberg Gadfly," New York Times, October 25, 2005.
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- George F. Will, "Can We Make Iraq Democratic?" City Journal, Winter 2004.
- Ralph Z. Hallow, "Not All Conservatives on Board on Iraq," The Washington Times (GlobalExchange.org), February 12, 2003. Note: MI had not voiced dissent.
- Condoleezza Rice, Wriston Lecture: "A Balance of Power That Favors Freedom," Manhattan Institute, October 1, 2002.
- Julia Vitullo-Martin, "Comissioner Bernard Kerik and the three priorities," Gotham Gazette, March 1, 2001.
- Robert Lederman, "Giuliani, the Manhattan Institute, and Eugenics: The Ugly Truth Behind 'Quality of Life'," The Konformist, March 29, 2000.
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- Sheldon Whitehouse, "Senators Call Out Web of Denial Blocking Action On Climate Change," Office of Senator Sheldon Whitehouse, July 15, 2016.
- Michelle Celarier, "Hedgies cut ties with think tank," New York Post, June 10, 2013.
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- [American Legislative Exchange Council, 2011 Conference Workshops, conference brochure on file with CMD, August 11, 2011]
- Joe Hagan, "President Bush's Neoconservatives Were Spawned Right Here in N.Y.C., New Home of the Right-Wing Gloat," The New York Observer, April 27, 2003.
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- Grant Recipients: Manhattan Institute from the Carthage Foundation, Media Transparency: $693,000 - 15 grants between 1985 and 2002.
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