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Oxytetracycline

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Oxytetracycline is a tetracycline antibiotic that is in human in and animal medicine and as a pesticide. It is sold under the brand names Terramycin, Liquamycin, and Oxy-Tet.

Use in Humans

Oxytetracycline is available as both an intramuscular injection and as eye drops. As an injection, it is prescribed to treat a host of bacterial infections, including the following labeled uses:[1] Actinomycosis, Acute Gonococcal Cervicitis, Acute Gonococcal Endometritis, Acute Gonococcal Epididymo-Orchitis, Acute Gonococcal Urethritis, Acute Otitis Media Infection, Anthrax, Bronchitis, Brucellosis, Genitourinary Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection, Gingivostomatitis, Gonococcal Pharyngitis, Granuloma Inguinale, Inclusion Conjunctivitis, Lymphogranuloma Venereum, Pharyngitis, Pneumonia, Psittacosis, Q Fever, Rectal Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection, Rectal Gonorrhea, Relapsing Fever, Rickettsialpox, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Sinusitis, Skin and Skin Structure Infection, Syphilis, Trachoma, Typhus Infections, Urinary Tract Infections, Yaws.

Additionally, oxytetracline may be used for the following unlabeled uses:[2] Biliary Tract Infection, Chlamydial Infections, Enterocolitis, Infectious Disease of Abdomen, Mycoplasmal Pneumonia, Ocular Rosacea, Plague, Tularemia

When receiving oxytetracycline as an injection, adults are generally given no more than 300mg in a 24 hour period.[3]

As eye drops, oxytetracycline is prescribed in combination with the antibiotic Polymyxin B for bacterial infections like conjunctivitis.[4]

Use in Animals

Oxytetracycline is given to cattle, swine, sheep. poultry, horses, honeybees, and fish for growth promotion, disease prevention, and a number of bacterial infections under several brand names. It is sold both by prescription and over the counter.[5]

The following is a list of the 112 current FDA-approved oxytetracycline animal drugs, listed by manufacturer and listed with the New Animal Drug Application (NADA) number:[6]

  • Alpharma, Inc.: Oxy-Tet™ Soluble, OxyMarine™, Tetravet-CA (130-435); Bovatec® / Terramycin® (140-579)
  • Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica, Inc.: Medamycin Soluble Antibiotic and OXY WS™ Soluble Antibiotic (038-200); Oxyject® (045-143); Bio-Mycin® and Oxy-Tet™ 50 (047-278); Bio-Mycin C and Oxy-Tet™ Injection (095-642); Oxyject® 100 (097-452); Medamycin® Injectable (108-963); OXY 1000 Calf Bolus and OXY 500 Calf Bolus (141-002); Bio-Mycin® 200 Injectable Solution and Oxy-Tet® 200 Injectable Solution (200-008)
  • Cross Vetpharm Group Ltd.: Biocyl 100, Biocyl 50, and Oxytetracycline Hydrochloride (140-582); Oxyshot® LA and Tetroxy® - LA (200-117); Oxytetracycline HCl Soluble Powder, TETROXY® HCA-1772, Tetroxy, Tetroxy® HCA-280 (200-144); Tetroxy® Aquatic (200-460)
  • Norbrook Laboratories Ltd.: Oxytetracycline Injection 300 mg/ml (OTC) and Tetradure™ 300 (Rx) (141-143); Oxytetracycline Injection 200 (200-306); Oxytet 100 (200-452)
  • Pennfield Oil Co.: Oxytetracycline - 100, Oxytetracycline - 100MR, Oxytetracycline - 50, Pennox™ 100, Pennox™ 100MR, Pennox™ 200, and Pennox™ 50 (138-938); Pennox™ 343 (200-026); Oxytetracycline 200 and Pennox™ 200 (200-154)
  • Pfizer, Inc: Terramycin® Vet Capsules (007-879); Terramycin® Animal Formula and Terramycin® Soluble Powder (008-622); Terramycin® Ophthalmic Ointment with Polymyxin (008-763); Liquamycin® Injectable and Terramycin® Injectable (008-769); Terramycin® Scour Tablets (011-060); Liquamycin® Intramuscular (013-146); Liqua-Cortril Spray and Terra-Cortril Spray (013-293); Magna Terramycin® Soluble Powder (032-946); Aquachel 100 mg (049-287); Rachelle Oxyvet Injection (049-948); Liquamycin® 100 and Terramycin® 100 (094-114); Aquachel-100 and Oxyvet-100 (099-402); Terramycin® Premix (103-758); Liquamycin® LA-200® and Terramycin LA-200® (Rx) (113-232)
  • Phibro Animal Health: TM-100® Type A Medicated Article, TM-100®D Type A Medicated Article, TM-50® D Type A Medicated Article, TM-50® Type A Medicated Article, Terramycin® 10 Type A Medicated Articles, Terramycin® 100 Type A Medicated Article, Terramycin® 100D Type A Medicated Article, Terramycin® 100SS Type A Medicated Article, Terramycin® 20 Type A Medicated Articles, Terramycin® 200 Type A Medicated Article, Terramycin® 50 Type A Medicated Article, Terramycin® 50D Type A Medicated Article, and Terramycin® Animal Mix (008-804); TERRAMYCIN 200 for Fish and Terramycin® for Fish (038-439); Neo-Terramycin® 100/100, Neo-Terramycin® 100/100D, Neo-Terramycin® 50/50, Neo-Terramycin® 50/50D (094-975); OXTC® - 10, OXTC® - 100 Type A Medicated Article, OXTC® - 100-S, OXTC® - 100MR, OXTC® - 200 Type A Medicated Article, OXTC® - 30, OXTC® - 50 Type A Medicated Article, OXTC® - 50-S, Terramycin® 100 Type A Medicated Article, Terramycin® 200 Type A Medicated Article, and Terramycin® 50 Type A Medicated Article (095-143); TM-10 Plus, Terramycin® TM-50 (099-006); Oxytetracycline & Robenz® Premix (101-666); Bio-Cox® / Terramycin® (140-448); Mecadox® 10 / Terramycin® 100, Mecadox® 10 / Terramycin® 200, and Mecadox® 10 / Terramycin® 50 (141-211)
  • Teva Animal Health, Inc.: Oxytetracycline-50 (048-287); Oxytetracycline Hydrochloride Injection (200-068); Maxim-200® Injection and Oxytetracycline Hydrochloride Injection 200mg (200-123), Oxytetracycline HCl Soluble Powder (200-146); Oxytetracycline HCl Soluble Powder-343 (200-247)

As a Pesticide

As a pesticide, oxytetracycline hydrochloride, a reproductive/developmental toxin, is used on pears and in landscaping as a fungicide and a microbiocide.[7] It is listed by Pesticide Action Network as a Bad Actor chemical. Additionally, Calcium oxytetracycline is used on pears, apples, peaches, and wine grapes as a fungicide and a microbiocide.[8]

As a Pollutant

Because humans and animals often do not fully metabolize pharmaceuticals in their body, they can excrete drugs or their breakdown products, which may the enter the environment.[9]

In Sewage Sludge

Oxytetracycline has been found in sewage sludge. In the Targeted National Sewage Sludge Survey, a 2009 test of 84 samples of sewage sludge from around the U.S., the EPA found oxytetracycline in 29 samples (35%) in concentrations ranging from 18.6 to 467 parts per billion.[10] There are no federal regulations governing how much of this drug may be present in sewage sludge applied to land as fertilizer.

In Drinking Water

An Associated Press investigation found that, of 62 metropolitan areas in the U.S., only 28 tested for pharmaceuticals, and 24 found pharmaceuticals in the drinking water when they tested it.[11] Of those tested, Philadelphia tested positive for oxytetracycline (as well as 55 other drugs).[12]

Articles and resources

Related SourceWatch articles

References

  1. Oxytetracycline IM: Dosage, Uses, and Warnings, Accessed September 3, 2010.
  2. Oxytetracycline IM: Dosage, Uses, and Warnings, Accessed September 3, 2010.
  3. Oxytetracycline IM: Dosage, Uses, and Warnings, Accessed September 3, 2010.
  4. Oxytetracycline-Polymyxin B Opht: Dosage, Uses, and Warnings, Accessed September 3, 2010.
  5. Animal Health @ FDA, FDA, Accessed September 22, 2010.
  6. Animal Health @ FDA, FDA, Accessed September 22, 2010.
  7. Oxytetracycline hydrochloride, Pesticide Action Network, Accessed September 22, 2010.
  8. Calcium oxytetracycline, Pesticide Action Network, Accessed September 22, 2010.
  9. O.A.H. Jones, N. Voulvoulis, and J.N. Lester, Human Pharmaceuticals in Wastewater Treatment Processes, Environmental Science and Technology, 2005.
  10. Targeted National Sewage Sludge Survey Report, US EPA website, Accessed August 28, 2010.
  11. AN AP INVESTIGATION : Pharmaceuticals Found in Drinking Water, Associated Press, Accessed September 3, 2010.
  12. Pharmawater-Metros-By-Results, Associated Press, Accessed September 3, 2010.

External resources

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