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ENCAP stands for Environmentally Sound Design and Management Capacity Building for Partners and Programs in Africa.[1] It is a program of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Africa Bureau’s Office of Sustainable Development and it "provides tools, resources, technical assistance and capacity building to USAID’s Africa Missions and partners to strengthen environmental management and environmental compliance."[1]

ENCAP and Biotechnology

ENCAP's textbook chapter on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) offers the following on genetically modified organisms (GMOs):[2]

"Genetic engineering may offer new pest management tools, particularly through the existing model of host plant resistance. Transgenic crop plants exhibiting resistance to particular plant pathogens or insect pests are under development for a wide range of crops, including several important staple crops such as rice and cassava. Use of these new varieties may allow higher yields and/or drastic cuts in pesticide use, with attendant economic, health and environmental benefits.
"However, potential benefits must be weighed against a range of problems. These include possible ecological impacts (e.g., harm to non-target species, creation of novel invasive weeds), lack of consumer acceptance, and uncertainties regarding access to seeds and seed saving.
"In addition, there is great concern among experts that some transgenic crops will rapidly select for resistance in the target pest population. A GMO technology that increases yields dramatically for several years and then collapses due to the pest evolving to overcome the crop’s genetic protection will not serve a long-term goal of reducing yield instability. Therefore, resistance management strategies appropriate to developing countries are essential to realize the potential benefits of Bt crops. One source of information and a site that rates biotech products is http://www.biotech-info.net/."

It also lists the following articles as resources:

Core Team members

Core team members include:[3]


Contact Information

  • USAID Africa Bureau Office of Sustainable Development (USAID/AFR/SD)
  • 1300 Penn. Ave., NW; 4.06-55
  • Washington, DC 20523-4600

Articles and Resources

Related SourceWatch Articles


  1. 1.0 1.1 ENCAP About, Accessed October 20, 2011.
  2. Chapter 12: Pest Management I: Integrated Pest Management, March 2009, p. 28, Accessed October 20, 2011.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Contact, Accessed October 20, 2011.

External Resources

External Articles