Gary H. Thorgaard

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Gary H. Thorgaard is the Director of the School of Biological Sciences at Washington State University, Pullman, WA.[1] He is a temporary voting member on the Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee in the September 2010 meeting that will participate in the approval process for the genetically engineered AquAdvantage salmon.

Education and Employment

Thorgaard attended Oregon State University, Corvallis, from 1969 to 1973, where he received a Bachelors of Science in Zoology.[2] As an undergraduate, he researched DNA hybridization study of the evolutionary relationship of the chum salmon, the coho salmon, and the rainbow trout, from 1972-73. He then went to graduate school at University of Washington, Seattle, receiving a PhD in genetics in 1977. His dissertation topic was Chromosome Rearrangements and Sex Chromosomes in the Rainbow Trout and Sockeye Salmon. He was a postdoctoral fellow, researching trout cytogenetics, at University of California-Davis in the Department of Animal Science.

In 1979, he went to Washington State University, Pullman, where he was a Visiting Assistant Professor of Genetics in the Program in Genetics and Cell Biology until 1983. He then became an Assistant Professor of Genetics and Zoology in the Department of Zoology and Program in Genetics and Cell Biology, a role he held until 1986.

Thorgaard took a professional leave from Washington State University to be a Visiting Scientist at Oregon State University, Corvallis, in the Marine/Freshwater Biomedical Center in 1987. He then returned to Washington State University, Pullman, first as an Associate Professor of Genetics and Zoology and later as a Professor of Genetics and Zoology until 1999. In 1999, his title changed to Professor, School of Biological Sciences, a position he holds until present day. He was named Chair of the Department of Zoology, and subsequently became the Director of the School of Biological Sciences.

During his many years as a professor, Thorgaard taught courses in General Genetics, Genetics and Society, Cytogenetics, Biology and Managment of Fishes, Fish Genetics, and Conservation Genetics. From 1979 to present, he performed research on induced polyploidy, gynogenesis and androgenesis in trout. His research expanded to include studying DNA polymorphisms in trout and salmon (1987-present), and studying genetic mapping in trout (1996-present).

Thorgaard is a member in the Genetics Society of America, Phi Kappa Phi, Sigma Xi, American Association for the Advancement of Science (Elected Fellow), American Fisheries Society, and the International Association for Genetics in Aquaculture.

Recent Publications

Thorgaard has authored or co-authored the following publications:[3]

  • Thorgaard, G.H., K.M. Nichols, A. Felip, A.M. Zimmerman, K.H. Brown, R.E. Drew, B.D. Robison, K. Sundin, J. Brunelli, R.B. Phillips, S.S. Ristow and P.A. Wheeler, 2005. Fish genomics: from genetic manipulation to genomic analyses. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Potential and Perspectives of Marine Bio-Manipulation. Graduate School of Fisheries Science, Hokkaido University, Hakodate, Japan, pp. 4-17.
  • Thorgaard, G.H., K.M. Nichols and R.B. Phillips, 2006. Comparative gene and QTL mapping in aquaculture species. Israeli J. Aquaculture 58: 341-346.
  • Patton, S.J., S.L. Kane, P.A. Wheeler and G.H. Thorgaard, 2007. Maternal and paternal influence on early embryonic survival of androgenetic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): implications for measuring egg quality. Aquaculture 263: 26-34.
  • Thorgaard, G.H. B.D. Robison, P.A. Wheeler and W.P. Young, 2007. Possible approaches for genetic analysis of temperature adaptations in redband trout. Pages 19-24 in R. K. Schroeder and J.D. Hall, editors. Redband trout: resilience and challenge in a changing landscape. Oregon Chapter, American Fisheries Society, Corvallis.
  • Nichols, K.M., K.W. Broman, K. Sundin, J.M. Young, P.A. Wheeler and G.H. Thorgaard, 2007. Quantitative trait loci by maternal cytoplasmic environment interaction for development rate in Oncorhynchus mykiss. Genetics 175: 335-347.
  • Komen, H. and G.H. Thorgaard, 2007. Androgenesis, gynogenesis and the production of clones in fishes: a review. Aquaculture 269: 150-173.
  • Drew, R.E., H. Schwabl, P.A. Wheeler and G.H. Thorgaard, 2007. Detection of QTL influencing cortisol levels in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 272S1: S183-S194.
  • Sriphairoj, K., U. Na-Nakorn, J.P. Brunelli and G.H. Thorgaard, 2007. No AFLP sex- specific markers detected in Pangasianodon gigas and P. hypophthalmus. Aquaculture 273: 739-743.
  • Landis, E.D., M.K. Purcell, G.H. Thorgaard, P.A. Wheeler and J.D. Hansen, 2008. Transcriptional profiling of MHC class I genes in rainbow trout infected with infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus. Mol. Immunol. 45: 1646-1657.
  • Heredia-Middleton, P., J. Brunelli, R.E. Drew, and G.H. Thorgaard, 2008. Heat shock protein (HSP 70) expression differs among rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) clonal lines. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B.: 149: 552-556.
  • Barroso, R.M., P.A. Wheeler, S.E. LaPatra, R.E. Drew and G. H. Thorgaard, 2008. QTL for IHNV resistance and growth identified in a rainbow (Oncorhynchus mykiss) X Yellowstone cutthroat (Oncorhynchus clarki bouvieri) trout cross. Aquaculture 277: 156-163.
  • Nichols, K.M., A. Felip Edo, P.A. Wheeler, and G.H. Thorgaard, 2008. The genetic basis of smoltification-related traits in Oncorhynchus mykiss. Genetics 179: 1559-1575.
  • Alfaqih, M.A., R.B. Phillips, P.A. Wheeler and G.H. Thorgaard, 2008. The cutthroat trout Y chromosome is conserved with that in rainbow trout. Cytogenet. Genome Res. 121: 255-259
  • Brunelli, J.P., K.J. Wertzler, K. Sundin, and G.H. Thorgaard, 2008. Y-specific sequences and polymorphisms in rainbow trout and Chinook salmon. Genome 51: 739-748.
  • Brunelli, J.P., R.F. Leary, J.L. Dunnigan and G.H. Thorgaard, 2008. Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with allozyme differences between inland and coastal rainbow trout. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 137: 1292-1298.
  • Alfaqih, M.A., J.P. Brunelli, R.E. Drew and G.H. Thorgaard, 2009. Mapping of five candidate sex-determining loci in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). BMC Genetics 10: 2.
  • Purcell, M.K., K.J. Laing, J.C. Woodson, G.H. Thorgaard and J.D. Hansen, 2009. Characterization of the interferon genes in homozygous rainbow trout reveals two novel genes, alternative splicing and differential regulation of duplicated genes. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 26: 293-304.
  • Young, W.P., K. Frenyea, P.A. Wheeler and G. H. Thorgaard, 2009. No increase in developmental deformities or fluctuating asymmetry in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) produced with cryopreserved sperm. Aquaculture 289: 13-18.
  • Alfaqih, M., C.A. Steele, P.A. Wheeler and G.H. Thorgaard, 2009. Comparative genome mapping reveals evidence of gene conversion between Sox9 paralogs of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. D: 4: 147-153.
  • Reinbold, D., G. H. Thorgaard, and P.A. Carter, 2009. Reduced swimming performance and increased growth are associated with domestication of rainbow trout. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 66: 1025-1032.
  • Phillips R.B., J.J. DeKoning, A.B. Ventura, K.M. Nichols, R.E., Drew RE, L.D. Chaves, K.M. Reed, A. Felip and G.H. Thorgaard, 2009. Recombination is suppressed over a large region of the rainbow trout Y chromosome. Animal Genetics 40: 925-932.
  • Palti Y., M.-C. Luo, Y. Hu, C. Genet, F.M. You, R.L. Vallejo, G.H. Thorgaard, P.A. Wheeler and C.E. Rexroad III, 2009. A first generation BAC-based physical map of the rainbow trout genome. BMC Genomics10:462.
  • Jordan, L.G., C.A. Steele and G.H. Thorgaard, 2010. Universal mtDNA primers for species identification of degraded bony fish samples. Molecular Ecology Resources 10: 225-228.
  • Martin, K.E., C.A. Steele, J.P. Brunelli and G.H. Thorgaard, 2010. Mitochondrial variation and biogeographic history of Chinook salmon. Trams. Amer. Fish. Soc. 139: 792-802.
  • Xu, P., L. McIntyre, J. Scardina, P. Wheeler, G. Thorgaard and K. Nichols, 2010. Transcriptome profiling of embryonic development rate in rainbow trout advanced backcross introgression lines. Marine Biotechnology doi:10.1007/s10126-010-9283-1
  • Brunelli, J.P,, C.A. Steele and G. H. Thorgaard, 2010. Deep divergence and apparent sex-biased dispersal revealed by a Y-linked marker in rainbow trout. Mol. Phylo. Evol. 56: 983-990.

Articles and resources

Related SourceWatch articles


  1. Meeting Participants for Aquadvantage Salmon Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee, U.S. FDA, Accessed September 13, 2010.
  2. Curriculum Vitae, Accessed September 15, 2010.
  3. Curriculum Vitae, Accessed September 15, 2010.

External resources

External articles