Ivan Illich "was born in Vienna in 1926. He studied theology and philosophy at the Greorgian University in Rome and obtained a PhD in history at the University of Salzburg. He came to the United States in 1951, where he served as assistant pastor in an Irish-Puerto Rican parish in New York City. From 1956 to 1960 he was assigned as vice-rector to the Catholic university of Puerto Rico, where he organized an intensive training center for American priests in Latin American culture. Illich was co-founder of the widely known and controversial Center for Intercultural Documentation (CIDOC) in Cuernavaca, Mexico, and since 1964 he has directed research seminars on `Institutional Alternatives in a Technological Society', with special focus on Latin America." 
Criticism from the Left
- Harry Cleaver, "Industrialism or Capitalism? Conviviality or Self-Valorization? Some Notes on Ivan Illich's Tools for Conviviality", August 2, 1987.
- Scott Samuel A (2003), "Less medicine, more health: a memoir of Ivan Illich," Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 57, 935.
Resources and articles
Related SourceWatch articles
- Ivan Illich, Archive, accessed May 3, 2009.