Proliferation Security Initiative
The Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI) met on October 9-10, 2003, in London. "Australia, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, the UK and the US were represented. ... The London meeting was the fourth meeting of the PSI, consolidating and building on the foundations laid at Madrid (12 June); Brisbane (9-10 July); and Paris (3-4 September)."
"The Statement of Interdiction Principles, agreed at Paris in September, outlines the scope of the Initiative. It makes clear that 'States or non-state actors of proliferation concern' generally refers to those countries or entities that the PSI participants involved establish should be subject to interdiction activities because they are engaged in proliferation through: (1) efforts to develop or acquire chemical, biological, or nuclear weapons and associated delivery systems; or (2) transfers (either selling, receiving, or facilitating) of WMD, their delivery systems, or related materials.
"Participants agreed that the Initiative aimed to impede and stop trafficking of WMD, their delivery systems and related materials by any state or non-state actor engaged in or supporting WMD proliferation programmes, at any time and in any place. ... WMD is a global threat which calls for a global response."
- Australian-led maritime interdiction training exercise in the Coral Sea, September 2003.
- UK-led air interception command post exercise in London (prior to October 9-10, 2003 meeting in London).
- Spanish-led maritime interdiction training exercise in the Mediterranean, October 14-17, 2003.
- French-led maritime interdiction training exercise in the Mediterranean, November 24-28, 2003.
- Italian-led air interception training exercise, December 3-4, 2003.
- US-led maritime interdiction training exercise in the Arabian Sea, January 2004.
- Polish-led ground interdiction exercise, early 2004.
- Italian-led maritime interdiction exercise in the Mediterranean, Spring 2004.
- French-led air interception exercise, Spring 2004.
- German-led interdiction exercise, at an international airport, March 2004.
Other Related SourceWatch Resources
- International Relations and Security Network links to PSI articles.
- Paul O'Sullivan, Chairman's Statement: From Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI) meeting in Brisbane on 9-10 July, 2003.
- Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI) Meeting, Paris, September 3-4, 2003. Also read this.
- Statement of Interdiction Principles Fact Sheet, U.S. Department of State, White House, September 4, 2003.
- Arms Control Association Interview with John R. Bolton, U.S. Under Secretary of State, no date.
- Mike Nartker, U.S. Response I: Bush Proposes New Initiative to Block Suspect Cargo Shipments, National Journal Group, June 2, 2003: "The United States has already begun contacting a number of countries, such as Poland, on the development of new legal agreements authorizing the search of planes and ships carrying suspect cargo, Bush said during a press conference in Krakow, Poland. Legal agreements developed through the Proliferation Security Initiative would also provide authority to seize illegal shipments of WMD- or missile-related components if discovered."
- Lucia Kubosova, French surprised by new US weapons' initiative, Euobserver.com, June 2, 2003: "Against a backcloth of resumed relations between the US and France at the G8 summit in Evian, the US initiative to fight the spread of Weapons of Mass Destruction produced yet another source of tension among world leaders."
- Richard Brownell, Administration Outlines Strategy Against WMD Proliferation, talonnews, June 6, 2003: "U.S. Under Secretary for Arms Control and International Security Affairs John R. Bolton testified before the House Committee on International Relations to outline the Bush Administration's new strategy to combat the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction."
- Capturing wayward WMDs, Washington Times, June 9, 2003.
- International Response: Officials Discussing Ways to Stop WMD Shipments, National Journal Group, June 12, 2003: "Eleven nations, including the United States, are scheduled to meet in Madrid today to discuss modifying international law to make it easier for authorities to board and seize cargo vessels suspected of transporting WMD materials."
- WMD: U.S. Interdiction, Council on Foreign Relations, June 26, 2003.
- Peter Brookes, Halting Proliferation, Heritage Foundation, June 27, 2003: "The sad truth is that existing, U.N.-centered agreements on preventing the spread of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), are proving ineffective. ...Thankfully, the Bush administration is actually doing something about it. Last month in Krakow, the president unveiled the Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI), an effort to get like-minded nations to work together outside the flagging U.N. nonproliferation regimes."
- Rebecca Weiner, Proliferation Security Initiative to Stem Flow of WMD Matériel, Monterey Institute of International Studies, July 16, 2003: "The United States' recently launched Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI), the latest element in the Bush administration's emerging strategy of pre-emption to combat proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, is moving forward 'at light speed,' according to U.S. Under Secretary of State John Bolton."
- Colin Robinson, The Proliferation Security Initiative: Naval Interception Bush-Style, Center for Defense Information, August 25, 2003: "On May 31, 2003 as part of a speech in Krakow, Poland, President George W. Bush announced a new effort to hinder the unwanted spread of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Calling nuclear, chemical and biological weapons the 'greatest threat to peace,' Bush said that the United States and a number of its allies had begun to work upon new agreements to search and seize planes and ships carrying such weapons or weapons technologies, entitled the Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI). The initiative was widely seen as aimed at halting North Korean proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. ... Effectively what the PSI does is further extend — in characteristically Bush administration fashion — the now relatively common practice of naval interception operations aimed at blocking activities the international community deems illegal."
- The Proliferation Security Initiative. The Legal Challenge, Global Security Institute, September 2003.
- John R. Bolton, "Proliferation Security Initiative: Statement of Interdiction Principles," Remarks at Proliferation Security Initiative Meeting, Paris, France, September 4, 2003.
- Proliferation Security Initiative: Principles and Practices, Foreign Policy Association, September 7, 2003.
- Mike Corder, Allies Show Off Maritime Security Skills, AP, September 13, 2003: "The maneuvers on the Coral Sea allowed the United States, Japan and Australia to fine tune moves to intercept ships suspected of carrying the deadly armaments. ... The exercises served as a special warning to North Korea and Iran because of the relatively advanced stages of their nuclear weapons programs, a senior U.S. official said recently on condition of anonymity. ... Code-named 'Exercise Pacific Protector,' the maneuvers were the first by members of the 11-nation Proliferation Security Initiative, PSI, developed earlier this year by President Bush."
- U.S. Practicing Sea and Air Piracy, anti-imperialist.org, September 16, 2003.
- New US policy to block freedom of the seas, The Guardian, September 17, 2003: "Not content with gobbling up Afghanistan and Iraq, US President George W. Bush is marshalling another "coalition of the willing" to shadow the world's oceans in search of weapons of mass destruction."
- Dan Smith, The Proliferation Security Initiative: A Challenge Too Narrow, Foreign Policy in Focus, October 2003.
- Nigel Chamberlain, Interdiction Under the Proliferation Security Initiative: Counter-Proliferation or Counter-Productive?, basicint.org, October 6, 2003.
- Anti-proliferation initiative readies to expand global role, etaiwannews.com, October 16, 2003: "More nations will be invited to join a group of 11 countries pressing ahead with a U.S. plan to intercept ships and planes suspected of trafficking weapons of mass destruction,... Foreign Minister Alexander Downer said the initiative, launched by U.S. President George W. Bush in May, agreed at a meeting in London last week that the global threat of biological, chemical and nuclear weapons needed an effective global response."
- Luis Gutiérrez Esparza, The Krakow Initiative: Another blow from Bush, wagingpeace.org, November 11, 2003: "...the U.S. president promoted and continues to promote a dependent mechanism used by Washington, outside the confines of the United Nations, to control international air space and maritime routes."
- Bolton Confident Proliferation Security Initiative Is Legitimate. Says PSI will be "extremely efficient" effort against WMD, U.S. Department of State, November 13, 2003.
- David Ensor, U.S. gets tough over WMD trade, CNN.com, December 3, 2003: Bolton "said recent interdiction training exercises hosted by Australia, Britain, Spain and France will be followed by concerted action to stop trafficking in WMD and missile technologies."