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- "[Titanium dioxide] is one of the top fifty chemicals produced worldwide. It is a white, opaque and naturally- occurring mineral found in two main forms: rutile and anatase. Both forms contain pure titanium dioxide that is bound to impurities. Titanium dioxide is chemically processed to remove these impurities, leaving the pure, white pigment available for use. Titanium dioxide has a variety of uses, as it is odorless and absorbent. This mineral can be found in many products, ranging from paint to food to cosmetics. In cosmetics, it serves several purposes. It is a white pigment, an opacifier and a sunscreen."
- "Titanium dioxide accounts for 70% of the total production volume of pigments worldwide. It is widely used to provide whiteness and opacity to products such as paints, plastics, papers, inks, foods, and toothpastes. It is also used in cosmetic and skin care products, and it is present in almost every sunblock, where it helps protect the skin from ultraviolet light."
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Related SourceWatch articles
- Lori Stryker, "Titanium Dioxide: Toxic or Safe?, The Organic Makeup Company, Accessed July 20, 2013.
- "Titanium Dioxide Classified as Possibly Carcinogenic to Humans," Canadian Center for Occupational Health and Safety, Accessed July 20, 2013.
- Andrew Behar, Danielle Fugere, and Michael Passoff," Slipping Through the Cracks: An Issue Brief on Nanomaterials in Food," As You Sow.
- Alex Weir, Paul Westerhoff, Lars Fabricius, et al., “Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Food and Personal Care Products,” Environmental Science & Technology 46, no. 4 (2012): 2242-2250.
- H.S. Sharma, S. Hussain, J. Schlager, et al., “Influence of Nanoparticles on Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability and Brain Edema Formation in Rats,” Acta Neurochir Suppl. 106 (2010): 359-364.
- Benedicte Trouiller, Ramune Reliene, Aya Westbrook, et al., “Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Induce DNA Damage and Genetic Instability In Vivo in Mice,” The American Association for Cancer Research 69 (2009): 22
- Jiangxue Wang, Guoqian Zhou, Chunying Chen, et al., “Acute Toxicity and Biodistribution of Different Sized Titanium Dioxide Particles in Mice after Oral Administration,” Toxicology Letters 168, no. 2 (2007): 176-185.
- Christie M. Sayes, Rajeev Wahi, Preetha A. Kurian, et al., “Correlating Nanoscale Titania Structure with Toxicity: A Cytotoxicity and Inflammatory Response Study with Human Dermal Fibroblasts and Human Lung Epithelial Cells,” Toxicological Sciences 92, no. 1 (2006): 174–85.
- Thomas C. Long, Navid Saleh, Robert D. Tilton, et al., “Titanium Dioxide (P25) Produces Reactive Oxygen Species in Immortalized Brain Microglia (BV2): Implications for Nanoparticle Neurotoxicity,” Environmental Science and Technology 40, no. 14 (2006): 4346-4352.
- Baan, R., et al. Carcinogenicity of carbon black, titanium dioxide, and talc. The Lancet Oncology. Vol. 7 (Apr. 2006). P. 295-296.
- Praful U. Jani, David E. McCarthy, and Alexander T. Florence, “Titanium Dioxide (Rutile) Particle Uptake from the Rat GI Tract and Translocation to Systemic Organs after Oral Administration,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics 105, no. 2 (1994): 157–168.