Science, economics, and environmental policy: a critical examination

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This article is part of the Tobacco portal on Sourcewatch funded from 2006 - 2009 by the American Legacy Foundation. Help expose the truth about the tobacco industry.

The Tobacco Documents online

The Tobacco Documents Online website contains extensive files on this deception piece issued by Alexis de Tocqueville Institution in the pay of the Tobacco Institute.

There are 308,060 in just one of the 50 databases online, the one dedicated to the Tobacco Institute records. Of these there are 355 hits in 23 documents for AdTI.

The author of this report was Kent Jeffreys. Senior Reviewer was listed as S. Fred Singer.

In another document in the collection, The EPA and the science of environmental tobacco smoke [1] Kent Jeffreys is listed on the title page as Adjunct Scholar, and S. Fred Singer is listed as Senior Fellow of Alexis de Tocqueville Institution.

In a confidential memo signed by the president of the Tobacco Institute, Samuel D. Chilcote, Jr., described how this secret tobacco-funded report was being used in legislative lobbying: "This morning Reps. Peter Geren (D-TX) and John Mica (R-FL) held a press conference announcing the release of a study by the Alexis de Tocqueville Institution that evaluates the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) scientific principles used to justify policy decisions. Geren and Mica were joined by Cesar Conda, executive director of the de Tocqueville Institution and coauthors Dr. S. Fred Singer and Kent Jeffreys." [2]

Chilcote goes on to elabote the public relations nature of the commisioned study: "Press coverage included States News Service, Stephens Publishing and Cable Congress. Several congressional staffers also attended, copies of the Geren/Mica "Dear Colleague" letter, press release and the study are enclosed." [3]

Constructed for a purpose, this report is part of a larger coordinated effort to blindside the EPA and obtain goals of the Tobacco Institute. A "panel of experts" was assembled to "peer-review" this report, which was majority loaded with persons with identified links to tobacco-funded institutes and think tanks, or share the same small set of funders known to finance the "usual suspects".

These are the persons listed in the forward matter to the report as Academic Advisory Board:

Senior Staff and Contributing Associates

Ten of the 19 names of the Academic Advisory Board have economics as their specialty, not medicine, in a report debunking environmental tobacco smoke conclusions of the EPA. That two of them come from Auburn University and two from George Mason University requires more investigation.

It would have been unseemly for S. Fred Singer to have listed his title of Senior Fellow of the publisher Alexis de Tocqueville Institution, so it is omitted.

Following the careers of the collaborators in this disinfo piece has turned up some facts. Evaluating these facts is another matter. Billionaires tend to have money to spend, and stocks in companies is a place to grow more money. While privacy laws keep the identities of stockholders hidden, especially if they are skilled in using holding companies they own to hold the stocks, there are a preponderance of coincidences which demands some theory about motivation.

Olin Foundation giving to name-bearing institutions is mere vanity, but Olin Foundation funds the "usual suspects", as does Koch Family Foundations and Scaife Foundations. Not only are there ideological reasons seen on the surface, but do not discount the awesome appetite these fellows have for amassing money for money's sake.

Since two of the names of this Academic group comes from George Mason University, it is worthwhile taking seriously Charles G. Koch's interest posted on his bio page on his website at Koch Industries:

Enter Koch

Mr. Koch is a director of Intrust Bank, N.A. His non-business activities include serving as chairman of the Institute for Humane Studies, the Claude R. Lambe Charitable Foundation and the Charles G. Koch Charitable Foundation, on the board of the Mercatus Center at George Mason University, and as a member of the Mont Pelerin Society. [4]

S. Fred Singer also claims association with the Institute for Humane Studies, a Koch-funded entity located physically and economically at George Mason University, so this totals three parties to this report coming with Koch-funding to write this report.

The Claude R. Lambe Charitable Foundation made its only known direct contribution to this report's publisher, Alexis de Tocqueville Institution in 1997, too late to be connected to this report, but it does show ongoing connections.[5]

The Charles G. Koch Charitable Foundation has contributed $14,048,850 to George Mason University, [6] and there are many millions more traceable through his brother's David H Koch Charitable Foundation. [7]

In 1994, at the time of this report, none of the Koch Family Foundations were giving to the Institute for Humane Studies at the George Mason University, which is one of the places S. Fred Singer hangs his hat, and picks up some paychecks. At the time period in question Scaife Foundations was the primary giver: [8]

Of course, we don't know that Singer ever saw one cent of that money, but we do know that both Koch and Scaife's wealth comes from oil companies, whom Singer has a long public career in serving.

The only theory that follows "Occum's Razor" is "one-hand-washes-the-other", otherwise known as "you-scratch-my-back-and-I-will-scratch-yours".

Charles G. Koch co-founded Cato Institute in 1977. Either he, or brother David have sat on the board ever since. Philip Morris made substantial financial contributions to Cato over the years, and usually until very recently, had an executive of the VP level sit on Cato's board of directors. Steven J. Milloy created the fraudulent front group The Advancement of Sound Science Coalition in 1993, extending the Whitecoats Project [9] of disinformation pioneered by big tobacco for decades. Milloy became an 'adjunk' fellow with Cato around this time period, although dates are secrative of Milloy's stealth behaviors on behalf of tobacco clients.

Robert D. Tollison, Richard Wagner, S. Fred Singer

Of the three persons from George Mason University on the Academic Advisors panel peer-reviewing this report, Robert D. Tollison name appears on 174 documents in the Tobacco Institute databases on Now, searching the database for Richard Wagner it is discovered that there are 408 documents with his name on 2 of the 50 databases on the website. Both of these ae economics professionals, not health or medical specialists, and they are as corrupt as S. Fred Singer has demonstrated to be.
Tobacco Institute Database

Smoking and the State: Social Costs, Rent Seeking, and Public Policy Date: Jul 1989 (est.)
Length: 176 pages

Characteristic: CONFIDENTIAL
Author: Tollison, R.D.
Wagner, R.E.

Page 1:
Smoking and the State: Social Costs, Rent Seeking, and Public Policy

Robert D. Tollison, George Mason University and Richard E. Wagner, Florida State University

Page 4: ...This manuscript was produced under a grant from The Tobacco Institute. The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of The Institute.
Tobacco Institute Database

Biography Richard E. Wagner Date: 1988 (est.)
Length: 1 page

Characteristic: CONFIDENTIAL


  • 1979-81 Professor of Economics, Auburn University
  • 1981- Professor of Economics, Florida State University


  • 1978-79 Editor, Policy. Report (Cato Institute)
  • 1984- Editorial Board, Cato Journal

Thomas Gale Moore

Thomas Gale Moore is listed as Adjunct Scholar for Cato Institute, [10] and currently is on the board of the Competitive Enterprise Institute. He is also associated with The Independent Institute, and Hoover Institution. The tobacco links to Cato and C.E.I. are well documented, and do not need repetition -- just click the links provided. The Independent Institute is another Koch-funded organ using tabacco-techniques of the white lab coats to dissemble about global warming, of which Moore is an identified flack. Remember, Koch is an OIL company, even if they loan troops for tobacco battles. The evidence of this report is that Moore is corrupt, and was so on the day his name was listed on this report. Funders to Moore's various institutes include the "usual suspects" Olin-Bradley-Koch-Scaife, et al.

Michael Gough

Michael Gough co-authored a book with Steven J. Milloy, appropriately and ironically titled Silencing Science published by Cato Institute. Gough is listed as "hired gun" for trial testimony by Atlantic Legal Foundation, which is a Koch-Scaife-Coors-Bradley funded organ. [11] [12] Moore's activities are known to blow smoke at Dioxin dangers, and climate change worries in manners uncannily similar to his co-authors Michael Fumento, [13] and Steven J. Milloy, all of which hang their hats at the same set if institutes and front organs.

In one tract, THE FEAR PROFITEERS [14], Gough, Fumento, and Milloy were all included among the eight authors, tying them together in an undisputable package. In the hands-washing-each-other theory, Fumento from Monsanto-funded Hudson Institute needs to whitewash Dioxin that Monsanto produced, and Gough slips into his white labcoat and helps his buddy. [15]

Michael Darby

Michael Darby's position as Director John M. Olin Center for Policy was was still shiny and new when this title appeared on this rehearsed document; The John M. Olin Foundation had recently established this position, with a $50,000 infusion corresponding to the reports release date: [16]

  • 1-1-1994 $50,000 Anderson Graduate School of Management. The public policy program of the John M. Olin Center for Policy John M. Olin Foundation, Inc.
  • 1-1-1992 $175,000 Anderson Graduate School of Management. To establish the John M. Olin Center for Policy John M. Olin Foundation, Inc.

Michael Darby is an Adjunct Scholar with the American Enterprise Institute funded by the usual suspects. [17]

Robert Ekelund

"Advertising presents a difficult logical paradox to those who hold the view that there are differences between markets for legal products and markets for ideas. There is no validity to the notion that consumers can properly evaluate proposed national policies when selecting officeholders but are. somehow unable to choose between cans of beans or to decide whether to smoke cigarettes or not." [18] -- Robert Ekelund

Consulting economists have identified an opportunity to present earmarking arguments during the Southwest Social Science Association meeting in Fort Worth, TX, early next year. Robert Ekelund will chair the session, "The Political Economy of Tax Earmarking." The papers, to be presented by Tollison, Wagner and Lee, will consist of chapters from the upcoming user fees/earmarking book. [19] - Tobacco Institute Confidential Memo online, page 20.

Two papers, one by Professor Boddewyn and another by Professors Ekelund and Jackson are now being printed in the British Journal of Addiction. The papers rebut a New Zealand study by Chettwynd et. al., alleging that advertising influence young people's smoking. Also to be included is an article by Glen Smith of the Children's Research Unit. The rebuttals will appear in the Fall issue, expected in December. [20] - Tobacco Institute Confidential Memo online, page 14.

Robert Ekelund and Mark Thornton, Auburn University

Punitive Taxes on Cigarettes Are Both Ineffective, Unfair
by Robert Ekelund and Mark Thornton. [21] News Op/Ed

Cigarette Tax Is Based on Shaky Numbers
by Robert Ekelund and Mark Thornton. [22] News Op/ed, 1993 before report.

William Hazeltine

According to William Campbell Douglass, M.D., an author, critic of conventional western medicine and self-described "alternative medicine pioneer": "One of America's greatest medical researchers, Dr. William Hazeltine, has found that small amounts of DDT actually lower the risk of leukemia and breast cancer in lab animals. (The animals appeared so much healthier, lab technicians started referring to this miracle compound as 'vitamin DDT.)"[23]

Richard Vedder

There are 45 documents in the Tobacco Institute documents online mentioning Richard Vedder, many of them are confidental reports listing him as a willing "hired gun" in academic white labcoat that will provide expert testimony.

Professor Richard Vedder (Ohio University) wrote an op-ed article on tax reform that appeared in the Cincinnati Enquirer in April (newspaper in home district of Ways & Means Member Gradison). Copies were sent to Gradison and Ways & Means Member Pease. [24] Confidential report on allies, academics, in Ohio.

Dwight R. Lee

I appreciate the opportunity of appear here today. I appear on behalf of the Tobacco Institute. My name is Dwight R. Lee, and I currently hold the Ramsay Chair in Private Institutions in the Department of Economics at the University of Georgia. I have testified on public smoking issues in Nassau County, New York, and the State of Pennsylvania. My written testimony is too long to read, so with your permission, I should like to submit it for the record and to summarize my testimony in my remarks today. [25]

Kent Jeffreys

Kent Jeffreys is director of environmental studies at the Competitive Enterprise Institute in Washington, D.C -- May 26, 1992, Cato Institute [26]

In an article mention on the Competitive Enterprise Institute Kent Jeffreys is identified with the Heritage Foundation in 1995. [27]

We find Jeffreys in a very short period of time holding prominent positions, being published by Cato Institute, Alexis de Tocqueville Institution as Adjunct Scholar, Competitive Enterprise Institute as Adjunct Scholar, and affiliated with Heritage Institute. Kent Jeffreys is a Senior Fellow, National Center for Policy Analysis in 2001. [28]

In Final Analysis

The report was crafted to deceive, the author makes the rounds of same-funded institutions and think tanks supported by the usual suspects foundations and ideologists. The majority of the "peer-reviewers" of this report were corrupt going in, and some may have been invited to test to see if they were corruptable to add to the legions of the fallen angels. A few of the masterminds are supremely corrupt to a pathological extent.

Several of the "peer-reviewers may have had little or no input, and were flattered to be allowed to rub elbows with so many "well-connected" academics. Whatever was the case, any uncorrupted individuals were massively outnumbered and powerless to alter the plan by the generals moving troops around to fight for the corporate right to serial murder for profit.

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