Bt-Resistant Insects are insects that have evolved resistance to Bt toxin, a toxin that is naturally made by a bacteria called Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt for short). Whereas Bt was an important tool of organic farmers and gardeners to deal with pests using a naturally occurring substance, it was also adopted by biotechnology companies such as Monsanto in their genetically modified crops such as Bt corn and Bt cotton. In these products, every cell of the plant manufactured Bt. With such ubiquitous exposure to Bt, by 2011, major corn pests began to evolve resistance to Bt.
Resistance in Western Corn Rootworms
In July 2011, Iowa State University entomologist Aaron Gassmann reported "the first rootworms confirmed as being Bt-resistant, which he found in four of the state’s cornfields." "Resistance developed in fields where the same genetically-engineered corn had been grown three years in a row."
In northwestern Illinois, University of Illinois in Urbana agricultural entomologist Michael Gray is studying whether western corn rootworms collected in August 2011 in Henry and Whiteside counties are resistant to an insect-killing protein derived from Bt. "The insects were collected in two fields where corn had toppled after roots were eaten by rootworms." Gray added that "planting Bt corn year after year increases the odds that the bugs will develop resistance to the insecticide... While the symptoms parallel bug resistance that’s been confirmed in Iowa, analysis of the Illinois insects won’t be complete until next year , he said." Since publishing his preliminary findings, Gray has been contacted by "more farmers whose Bt corn is succumbing to corn rootworms."
Articles and resources
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- ↑ Clay Dillow, "Pests Are Developing Resistance to Monsanto's Engineered Supercorn," Popular Science, August 30, 2011, Accessed September 1, 2011.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Jack Kaskey, "Monsanto Corn Falls to Illinois Bugs as Investigation Widens," Bloomberg, September 2, 2011, accessed September 7, 2011.
- ↑ Dan Piller, "Beetle resistance reported to Monsanto BT corn," Des Moines Register, August 28, 2011, Accessed September 7, 2011.
- Michael Gray, "Severe Corn Rootworm Injury to Bt Hybrids in First-Year Corn Confirmed," The Bulletin, August 27, 2013.
- Erin Hodgson, Kristine Schaefer and Aaron Gassmann, "Iowa Farmer Perception of Corn Rootworm Resistance," Integrated Crop Management News, September 13, 2013.
- Ian Berry, "Pesticides Make a Comeback: Many Corn Farmers Go Back to Using Chemicals as Mother Nature Outwits Genetically Modified Seeds," Wall Street Journal.
- Daniel Stolte, "GM corn needs bigger refuges to slow pest resistance," Western Farm Press, June 7, 2012.
- Anne Sewell, "Monsanto's Bt corn — breeding superbugs & harming human health," Digital Journal, June 7, 2012.
- Daniel Stolte, "Trouble on the Horizon for GM Crops?," University of Arizona, June 19, 2012.
- Kate Taylor, "Trouble brewing for GM crops," TG Daily, June 21, 2012.
- Brett Smith, "Pests Are Adapting To GM Crops In Unexpected Ways," Red Orbit, June 21, 2012.
- Daniel Stolte, "GM crop trouble as pests adapt," Western Farm Press, June 21, 2012.
- "GM crops no longer safe from pests," News Track India, June 21, 2012.
- Chelsea Whyte, "Pests Mutate to Feed on Genetically Modified Crops," iScience Times, June 22, 2012.
- "Superbug vs. Monsanto: Nature rebels against biotech titan," RT, June 25, 2012.
- Doug Gurian-Sherman, "Is This Sustainable Agriculture? Resistance to Engineered Bt Corn on the Rise," Union of Concerned Scientists, December 5, 2011.
- Emily Garnett, "Plant scientists find insects developing resistance to genetically modified corn," Missourian, September 12, 2011.
- Mark Steil, "Monsanto responds to reports of resistant pests," Minnesota Public Radio, September 8, 2011.
- Marcia Ishii-Eiteman, "Monsanto's Superweeds & Superbugs," Pesticide Action Network North America, GroundTruth blog, September 8, 2011.
- Mike Abram, "Resistance found in GM maize target pest," Farmers Weekly Interactive, September 6, 2011.
- Jack Kaskey, "Monsanto Corn Falls to Illinois Bugs as Investigation Widens," Bloomberg, September 2, 2011.
- Caroline Scott-Thomas, "http://www.foodnavigator-usa.com/Science/Insect-develops-resistance-to-Monsanto-s-GM-corn," Food Navigator-USA, September 1, 2011.
- Tom Philpott, "Attack of the Monsanto Superinsects," Mother Jones, August 30, 2011.
- Melissa Hincha-Ownby, "GM crops are breeding a new superbug: Some of Monsanto's genetically modified corn crops may be susceptible to a new superbug," Mother Nature Network, August 30, 2011.
- Clay Dillow, "Pests Are Developing Resistance to Monsanto's Engineered Supercorn," Popular Science, August 30, 2011.
- Associated Press, "Monsanto shares slip on bug-resistant corn woes," Forbes, August 29, 2011.
- Scott Kilman, "Monsanto Corn Plant Losing Bug Resistance," Wall Street Journal, August 29, 2011.
- Dan Piller, "Beetle resistance reported to Monsanto BT corn," Des Moines Register, August 28, 2011.
- Mike Gray, "Severe root damage to Bt corn confirmed in northwestern Illinois," Aces News, August 24, 2011.