Richard E. Wagner
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Richard E. Wagner, (often known as "Dick Wagner") was a professor of economics at Florida State University ... then at George Mason University, and also a life-long tout for the tobacco industry, He co-authored numerous publications with Robert D. Tollison dismissing suggestions that there were any social (as distinct for private) costs arising from smoking. He also shared with Tollison in the general administration of the Cash for Comments Economists Network that was run for the Tobacco Institute through James Savarese & Associates and George Mason's Center for Study of Public Choice (CSPC) which he often headed.
His value to the continued sale of cigarettes was derived mainly through the publication of a much-promoted book: Smoking and The State co-written by Tollison and Wagner. About fifty of their paid fellow network members (all members of the Public Choice Society and CSPC) were set to work to promote the book and its ideology of free-markets. This was extended to a lack of regulation as it applied to smoking sales, excise taxes and general behaviour. The tobacco industry's executive summary of the report states:
"Tobacco products are among the most highly taxed and strictly regulated products in America. The economic penalties imposed upon these products are justified by anti-smoking advocates by the supposed costs to society that result from the claimed health effects of cigarette use. These costs are known as "social costs".
But to the extent that any costs associated with smoking exist, these costs actually are "private costs"-- costs borne by the individual rather than society. This is the critical finding: of a new book, Smoking and The State written by Professors Robert D. Tollison and Richard Wagner of the Center for Public Choice at George Mason University.""Wagner and Tollison conclude that there is no convincing basis for the claim that any economic costs of smoking are imposed on nonsmokers. Nor, the authors say, do smokers impose an uncompensated cost on nonsmokers from the claimed consequences of environmental tobacco smoke." 
Wagner and Tollison stayed as industry helpers trying to maintain the unrestricted market for cigarettes for most of their working lives. Their line of scholarship simply ignored or downplayed the health and environmental consequences, and dealing only with obscure economic theories of who pays the market costs.
Richard Wagner was a member of the Board of Scholars of the Virginia Institute for Public Policy and in the summer of 1978 he was a Visiting Fellow at the Institute for Humane Studies (IHS). At that time the IHS was the central hub for the expansion of the extreme libertarian network of think-tanks, now known as the Atlas Group. 
|HOW THE NETWORK WORKED|
The Cash-for-Comments Economists' Network was run by Savarese through a partnership with Professor Robert D Tollison who used the staff and facilities of the Center for Study of Public Choice at George Mason University to prove cut-out and organisation services. They developed and maintained a network of Economics Professors with at least one on tap in virtually every US state. As one Professor transferred or dropped out (there was a regular turn-over) a new one would be recruited in that State. In all, about 130 university professors were involved in the period 1985-1995, and costs ran to $3 million/year at a time when professor's salaries were in the $30-40,000 pa range. An active network member at a State university could almost double his normal salary.
The main focus of the group was to write commissioned op-ed articles on a subject determined by the Tobacco Institute. The draft article would then pass back through the network to TI staff, who were essentially public relations experts. Here they were 'improved' and refined; then sent to the Institute's outside lawyers for vetting. Modified articles then returned to the professor, who would then send them to a designated State newspaper as if they were his 'independent expert opinion'. The professors received a base amount for writing and bonuses for successfully planting the article on the newspaper. Some, but not all, received a small (eg.$1000) annual retainer.]Published papers would also be copied by the professor and sent to his local Federal Representative and Senator (for a further bonus). Sometimes there were special commissions, but generally the work was writing op-eds and LTE's where they were paid just on results (varied from about $700 to $3000 over the years). Network members could also be called upon to provide witness services and promote the cigarette companies' political/economic line at local ordinance or State legislative hearings. An active professor of economics at a State University could almost double his salary with these activities and with some further appearances, for instance, speaking on the importance of cigarettes in economic terms at major economic conferences, etc.
|Cash for Comments Economists Network & Robert Tollison & James Savarese & Network Document Index|
Documents & Timeline
1941 Apr 28: Born Jamestown, North Dakota
1963: BS University of Southern California
1966: PhD University of Virginia
1966-68: Assistant Professor of Economics, Uni of California, Irvine
1968-72: Associate Professor of Economics, Tulane University
1972-73: "Senior Research Associate" The Urban Institute
1973-79: Associate/Profesor of Economic, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
1979-81: Professor of Economics, Auburn Uni
1981-88: Professor of Economics, Florida State Uni
1988- : Professor of Economics, George Mason Uni (maybe only Director of CSPC)
1984 Apr 30: This 109- page DRAFT Tobacco Institute Cigarette Excise Tax Plan' was being developed to covertly battle against a tax proposal being considered by the Reagan Administration; they were facing a budget crisis. The tobacco industry suspected that the Administration (under pressure to create tax cuts for the wealthy) was about to extend the life of a temporary excise tax which had been imposed on cigarettes (16¢ per pack).
They had an urgent requirement for some 'independent' experts to lobby on their behalf at the State level. Their lobbying budget specified the average cost per State worth lobbying:
- One public finance economist for 10 days @ $1,000, [Total $ 10,000] including meetings with coalition members and/or the Governor's staff; research and preparation; and testimony.
- One economist for a union workshop on the tax issue, [Total $5,000] including 3 or 4 training sessions over the course of a convention.
- Six economists @ $5,000 and one senior economist @ $20,000 for a tax symposium, including publishing of the proceedings at $3,000. [Total $53,000] The senior economist would play an oversight/organizational role and would be responsible for editing the proceedings. Such a symposium would be staged for regional or national impact.
- One economist provided to a public employee union to do original research on the need for adequate services to be funded by broad-based taxes; this would include the final report and testimony. [Total $ 25,000]
Also included in this bundle was draft copy and designs for a couple of different booklets aimed at different States, and others aimed at labor/union and racial groups. It also identifies the Congress Committeemen and state Assemblymen who should be targetted as most likely to be influenced, and it had an appendix which lists economists who can be enlisted to help.
Potential Economic Consultants:
Following is a list of economists in key states who might assist us as consultants. We have begun contacting them to ensure their willingness and expertise. We are asking each about past experience; work with similar issues; previous work with the industry; published articles or research; and speaking availability. As discussed in the body of this program, our intent is to have a group of individuals who we can call upon regularly to testify, conduct special research projects, and discuss their research and/or views on excise taxes with the media.
Tollison is the most influential and prestigious on this list; he was hired to consult on federal tax issues, to publish books promoting the cigarette industry's position, and to oversee efforts of the other cash-for-comments economists throughout the country. See last page
- California, Thomas Borcherding, Claremont College
- Connecticut, William McEachern, University of Washington
- Florida, Richard Wagner, Florida State University
- Georgia, Fred McChesney, Emory University Law School
- Illinois, James Heins, University of Illinois
- Massachusetts, Harlan Platt, Northeastern University
- Minnesota, Thomas Stimson, University of Minnesota (St. Paul Campus)
- New York, Harold Hochman, City University of New York
- Ohio, David Klingaman, Ohio University
- Pennsylvania, Mark Pauly, University of Pennsylvania
- Texas, Charles Maurice, Texas A&M University
- Washington, Yoram Barzel, University of Washington
- Washington, D.C. Robert D Tollison, George Mason University
- Wisconsin, Burton Weisbrod, University of Wisconsin
- They are already designating key states for the economists to influence through op-eds and politicians, and allocating a recruited academic to perform their lobbying services. Yoram Barzel is the only name on the above list who appears to have had second thoughts. He resisted the Institute's overtures entirely -- although they quoted his papers extensively.
1984 Jul The following month the Tobacco Institute circulated a formal document to the cigarette company members:
Cigarette Excise Tax Plan.
The plan augments our basic lobbying efforts by relying on groups outside the industry -- some not regularly associated with the industry -- to argue against excise taxes for us.
It is an ambitious program, based on the notion that many of the most effective protests against tobacco taxes will come from groups philosophically distant from The Institute. Many such groups agree with us on the excise issue, even though they disagree with us on other matters.
At the federal level, supporting Congressional members from the tobacco states is essential to our lobbyists. The tobacco members consistently vote as a unified group -- something that is rarely seen in Congress today. They are our lobbyists' most important resource.
The program recommends that economic and other consultants assist us in developing, "packaging," and presenting our anti-excise arguments in legislative testimony or meetings with coalition members. Resources:Tactics:
Economic consultants with different areas of expertise will conduct research and act as spokespersons for The Institute and organizations supported by The Institute. Specific activities with economists are discussed throughout the tactics.
- Stimulate reputable public finance economists at key state universities to determine the validity of state revenue forecasts, perhaps on behalf of state business organizations and present arguments against excise taxes in various forums; e.g., meetings with potential coalition members or budget officials.
- Encourage economists to make the case against regressive taxation in meetings with potential coalition members and legislators.
- Retain public finance economists affiliated with non-profit organizations to research the subject and use their findings in forums such as:
- Private meetings with state legislators or staff ;
- formal testimony before government bodies ;
- targeted media appearances;
- speeches before business, civic, labor, and other groups ;
- tax symposia in key states where the proceedings could be published for use in other states ; and
- articles which raise the visibility of key arguments in the business, academic, and popular press.
Appendix: A list of economists in key states who may be willing to act as industry and third-party spokespersons on the tax issue. Following is a list of economists in key states who might assist us as experts receiving honoraria. We have begun contacting them to ensure their willingness and expertise. We are asking each about past experience; work with similar issues; previous work with the industry; published articles or research; and availability.
- Presenting specific members of the House Ways and Means and Senate Finance Committees with arguments prepared by economists with whom they share some common interest; e.g college affiliation, service on the same commission.
- Gaining the support of Citizens for Tax Justice (CTJ), the most influential labor/liberal tax reform group in the country, in opposition to excise taxes.
- Relying on the AFL-CIO -- via The Bakery, Confectionery, and Tobacco Workers Union -- to ensure that the labor/liberal tax package that emerges in the next session of Congress does not include tobacco.
|State||Economists and their institutions|
|California||Thomas Borcherding, Claremont College|
|Connecticut||William McEachern, University of Washington|
|Florida||Richard Wagner, Florida State University|
|Georgia||Fred McChesney, Emory University Law School|
|Illinois||James Heins, University of Illinois|
|Mass.||Harlan Platt, Northeastern University|
|Minnesota||Thomas Stimson, University of Minnesota (St.P)|
|New York||Harold Hochman, City University of New York|
|Ohio||David Klingaman, Ohio University|
|Penn.||Mark Pauly, University of Pennsylvania|
|Texas||Charles Maurice, Texas A&M University|
|Wash.DC.||Robert D Tollison, George Mason University.|
|Wisconsin||Burton Weisbord, University of Wisconsin|
|"Our intent is to have a group of individuals whom we can call upon as needed to testify, conduct special research and discuss their research projects and/or views on excise taxes with budget officials, potential coalition members, legislators and the media."|
|[The only change here is that Yoram Barzel from the University of Washington, had dropped out. (There was always a regular turnover)
This was the core Cash for Comments Economists' Network. Over the years they recruited over 160 professors of economics.]
1985 Dec 12: Annual Report of the Tobacco Institute's Public Relations division lists Professor Adams as having served them well:
We believe that the active and creative use of experts -- our scientists in particular -- gives us an edge. But without question, public smoking is our toughest challenge. A close second is taxation. In 1985, most of our resources in this area were focused on the federal situation. That being the case, we concentrated almost exclusively on the home districts and offices of the 56 members of the House Ways and Means and Senate Finance Committees.
We identified and utilized economists from universities in 48 of those districts. Some testified at the four federal tax hearings in which had interest. Others participated in academic symposia attended by Congressional staffers. Others communicated directly with their Congressmen.Academics: Professor Richard Wagner (Florida State University) wrote an op-ed article on tax reform and submitted to the Tampa Tribune and the Washington Times. Although neither paper could use the piece; copies were sent to Ways & Means Member Gibbons. 
And 34 of them wrote op-ed articles on the need to consider excises as part of tax reform. Many of these articles appeared in the principal newspaper in the targeted districts which have, by our estimation, a total circulation of nearly 4 million. The economists were of great help. [SNIP]
Citizens: 50 Vietnam veterans from the Miami area wrote individual letters opposing cigarette excise taxes to Rep. Gibbons (Ways & Means Committee) and both Florida Senators.
1988- : Professor of Economics, George Mason Uni (maybe initially only Director of CSPC) Later Chairman of Department of Economics.
|Report on a Savarese "brain-storming" meeting with the leaders of the Cash for Comments Economists Network|
1988 Feb 2 James Savarese reports to the Tobacco Institute on a "brain-storming" meeting with a "core group of economists and lawyers to exchange thoughts and ideas on the Social Cost issue. [The total cost to the economy of smoking: related to health, pollution, cleaning, etc.]. Their goal was to determine project priorities and making assignments for 1988. The meeting was directed at ... [attacking] Anti-smoking activists [who] have distorted the issue of Social Cost. Even though economists ridicule their statistics, [the] politicians and the press believe them.
Primary assumptions that need to be countered.
Goals: As a result of this meeting, we should devise a specific plan and timetable of implementation with assignments for specific projects.We need to review and critique existing materials and develop our own core of research.
1988 to 1993 Diana L Avedon at the Tobacco Institute ran a major media-tour operation called the Scientific Witness Teams. This operation circulated variable teams of TI staff spokespersons, contracted sham air-testing company staff, one or more Covington & Burling lawyers, and other more specialied tobacco lobbyists. They were used in two ways:
- As fire-fighters, to turn up in some town or region when problem about public or workplace smoking was arising, and do media interviews.
- To make regular media tours through various parts of the country to promote Tobacco Institute propaganda.
They were paid to visit major cities in each state, where the Regional Tobacco Institute staff would have arranged radio, TV or news coverage, and set up meetings with key officials at the local councils, counter air-ports (smoking bans) and meet with the editorial boards of media outlets. This is Diana Avedon's list of the key contractors on these group media-tours. It had the advantage of each participant getting to know the others, which introduced a collegial element to their shared message distortions.
|1993 Jun 1 TI list of "Witness/Expert Appearances Scientific/Legal/Spokespersons."|
Assistant to the Tobacco Institute President,
lawyer-lobbyist with Covington & Burling,
IAQ witness/executive of ACVA/HBI,
|Gio Batta Gori
Corrupt science researcher at Nat. Cancer Institute
He ran the Tobacco Working Group for the industry until fired.
Tobacco Institute's Media spokesperson
Partner in ACVA then owner of HBI
Lifelong contractor for sham air-testing with TI
owner/partner of ACVA and HBI
He sold his share of HBI to Gray Robertson
Ran sham air-testing company (airlines)
Holcomb Environmental Services
|John C Fox
Lawyer lobbyist for TI via Pettit & Martin
Later also through Pillsbury Madison & Sutro
Healthy Buildings International (HBI)
spokesman on 'sick buildings'
TI Public Relations, then Issues Management
Later VP at the Tobacco Institute.
legal strategist from the main law firm
Covington & Burling (C&B)
National Energy Management Institute
(NEMI) organiser who worked for TI
|Melinda L Sidak
C&B lawyer; strategist in science corruption
Worked on recruitment of scientists.
He ran restaurant front-group RSVP
He organised lobby against smoking bans.
Environmental Consultants; TI witness
|An attached 1991 Witness List includes|
Media relations at the Tobacco Institute
Exec. in charge of HBI's sham air testing
He later turned whistleblower.
Lawyer sent on media tours by the Tobacco institute to train witnesses.
worked for Holcomb Environmental Services
Did sham air-testing for TI
|Jolly Ann Davidson
NASBE school/educational lobbyist,
ran "Helping Youth Decide" program for TI
GMU economics professor (Tollison aide)
Key in cash-for-comments network
lawyer and media lobbyist with John Fox
She was retained by TI as IAQ witness
|Walter J Decker
Ran Toxicology Consultancy Services
Provide witness services for the TI
TI Director of Economic Issues
He was ex-US Chambers of Commerce
|Mike Davis (Dallas Texas)
Prof of Econ. and Business Management
Witness for the Tobacco Institute.
Prof Economics West Virginia.
Worked in cash-for-comments net.
|The main long document has this 1989 witness list attached with the addition (to above)|
economics professor and leader of
cash-for-comments economists network
|David A Weeks
Boise Idaho physician, TI Witness
Partner of S James Kilpatrick in Per-Med Corp.
Ex tobacco industry scientist. Retrained
to provide legislative and media briefings.
GMU professor of economics who ran the
cash-for-comments economists network
Economics professor and TI witness.
Tollison's understudy in c-for-c network
|Jack E Peterson
Industrial hygienist; ran Peterson Assoc.
Also worked for Dow Chemicals
|Bestype Consulting Corporation
they ran TI's "Sick Building Syndrome"
and "Tight Building Syndrome" seminars.
|Dennis A Vaughn
Lawyer-lobbyist for Tobacco Institute,
Associate of John Fox at P&M and PM & Sutro
|The 1988 List includes most of above with the additions of:|
|Alan W Katzenstein
Biostatistician with Katzenstein Assoc.
Witness for Tobacco Institute,
Ran the Smokers Rights Alliance
His wife Sue had her focus on airline smoking.
[Numerous other documents detail the day-to-day organization of these groups spread over five or more years.]
1994 Aug A Alexis de Tocqueville report "The EPA and the Science of ETS" has been funded by the Tobacco Institute. The author was Adjunct Scholar Kent Jeffreys, and the senior reviewer was S. Fred Singer, a Professor of Environmental Science (on leave from the University of Virginia) and a Senior Fellow at the Institute. The final report was scheduled to be complete mid-June and it would be entitled "Science and Environmentalism".
This morning Reps. Peter Geren (D-TX) and John Mica (R-FL) held a press conference announcing the release of a study by the Alexis de Tocqueville Institution that evaluates the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) scientific principles used to justify policy decisions. Geren and Mica were joined by Cesar Conda, executive director of the de Tocqueville Institution and coauthors Dr. S. Fred Singer and Kent Jeffreys." 
"Press coverage included States News Service, Stephens Publishing and Cable Congress. Several congressional staffers also attended, copies of the Geren/Mica "Dear Colleague" letter, press release and the study are enclosed."
This report is part of a larger coordinated effort to blindside the EPA. A "panel of experts" was assembled to "peer-review" the report. Naturally the majority were people with identified links to tobacco-funded institutes and think tanks, and some who share the same small set of funders.
Academic Advisory Board:
- Dr. Gary Anderson, Professor of Economics, California State University-Northridge
- Dr. Nancy Bord Visiting Scholar The Hoover Institution Stanford University
- Dr. Gordon L. Brady Associate Professor and Director Environmental Studies Sweet Briar College
- Dr. Jeffrey Clark Professor of Economics University of Tennessee-Chattanoogna
- Dr. Michael Darby Professor of Economics and Director John M. Olin Center for Policy University of California, Los Angeles
- Dr. Robert Ekelund Lowder Eminent Scholar Auburn University
- Dr. Michael Gough Project Director Congressional Office of Technology Assessment
- Dr. William Hazeltine Environmental Consultant
- Dr. Thomas Hopkins Gosnell Professor of Economics Rochester Institute of Technology
- Dr. Dwight R. Lee Ramsey Professor of Economics University of Georgia
- Dr. Michael Marlow, Professor of Economics, California State Polytechnic University-San Luis Obispo
- Dr. Thomas Gale Moore Senior Fellow The Hoover Institution Stanford University
- Dr. Malcolm Ross Research Mineralogist U.S. Geological Survey
- Dr. S. Fred Singer Professor Emeritus of Environmental Sciences University of Virginia and President Science and Environmental Policy Project
- Dr. Gerhard Stöhrer Director of Chemical Risk Program Science and Environmental Policy Project and former Department Head Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research
- Dr. Mark Thornton Professor of Economics Auburn University
- Dr. Robert D. Tollison Duncan Black Professor of Economics and Director Center for the Study of Public Choice George Mason University
- Dr. Richard Vedder Professor of Economics University of Ohio
- Dr. Richard Wagner Professor of Economics and Chairman Department of Economics George Mason University
Ten of the 19 names of the Academic Advisory Board are members of the Cash for Comments Economists Network. At this time S. Fred Singer was a Senior Fellow at the Alexis de Tocqueville Institute, but they chose not to credit him with such close links.
- 20 page Draft document sent to the Tobacco Institute 
- The release about the final report (August 11 1994) It is now an attack on "environmental regulation" -- ETS, radon, pesticides and agricultural regulation, and the Superfund toxic waste cleanup program ... and based, supposedly, on the quality of the science used by the EPA. 
- The final report was called Science, Economics, and Environmental Policy: A Critical Examination.' It had the approval of the Cash for Comments Economists Network. 
- Robert D. Tollison, Richard E. Wagner, "Smoking and the state: social costs, rent seeking, and public policy", Lexington Books, Lexington, Massachussetts, c1988. ISBN 0-66917-100-X.
- Robert D. Tollison, Richard E. Wagner, "The Economics of Smoking", Kluwer Academic Publishers, October 1991, ISBN 0792392248